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St. Tikhon’s University Review . Series IV: Pedagogy. Psychology

St. Tikhon’s University Review IV :56

PEDAGOGICAL SCIENCE

Sklyarova Tatiana; Ageeva Antonina

Educational activity of the Russian Orthodox Church in the period of 1990–2015: problem, approaches and research methods

Ageeva Antonina, Sklyarova Tatiana (2020) "Educational activity of the Russian Orthodox Church in the period of 1990–2015: problem, approaches and research methods ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia IV : Pedagogika. Psihologiia, 2020, Iss. 56, pp. 11-17 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIV202056.11-17
This article deals with the problem of formation and development of educational activities of the Russian Orthodox Church in the period from 1990 to 2015. The chronological framework of the study is determined by the legislative change in the position of the Russian state in relation to the social activity of religious organisations, which allowed them to start educational activities in 1990, and by the processes of standardisation of educational programmes and publication of educational materials initiated in 2015 by the authorities of the Russian Orthodox Church. The purpose of the article is to identify and characterise main research approaches, describe methods that are adequate for the goals and for the structure of the study. The article substantiates the use of historical and pedagogical analysis of documents and facts illustrating activities of various institutions of the Russian Orthodox Church in the fi eld of education. It argues for the use of level-based representation of church educational activities in the relevant period and pays attention to the feasibility of analysing the process of publishing educational literature. In conclusion, a brief description of the planned research methods is given: the survey of experts using the method of “oral history”; comparative study of the development of educational activities of public institutions in Russia in the relevant period; description of the development of educational activities of the Russian Orthodox Church on the four levels of education, i.e. primary, secondary, professional, and scientific; study of publication of printed and electronic educational literature through the analysis of the process of modernisation of the Russian system of library classification and bibliographic description (Russ. ББК); analysis of offi cial documents adopted by the authorities of the Russian Orthodox Church in relation to educational activities during the studied period and the creation of chronological tables that refl ect the data obtained in the course of the study.
educational activities of religious organisations, religious education, methodology of research of educational activities, educational activities of Russian Orthodox Church
  1. Bezrogov V., Kosheleva O. (2013) “Metodologicheskie aspekty sravnitel'nykh issledovanii v izuchenii uchebnoi literatury” [Methodological aspects of comparative research in the study of educational literature]. Otechestvennaia i zarubezhnaia pedagogika, 4 (13), 6–22 (in Russian).
  2. Blok M. (2001) “K sravnitel'noi istorii evropeiskikh obshchestv” [On the comparative history of European societies], in Odissei: chelovek v istorii [Odyssey: person in history]. Moscow. P. 66 (in Russian).
  3. Loskutova M. (ed.) (2003) Khrestomatiia po ustnoi istorii [Anthology in oral history]. St. Petersburg (in Russian).
  4. Shcheglova T. (2011) Ustnaia istoriia. Uchebnoe posobie [Oral history: a textbook]. Barnaul (in Russian).
  5. Sklyarova T. (2016) “Pravoslavnoe obrazovanie v sovremennoi Rossii: struktura i soderzhanie” [Orthodox education in modern Russia: structure and content”]. Vestnik PSTGU. Ser. IV: Pedagogika. Psihologiia, 1, 9–16 (in Russian).

Sklyarova Tatiana


Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in Education;
Academic Rank: Professor;
Place of work: St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University for the Humanities; 407, 9/2, Jlovaiskaya str., 109651, Moscow, Russian Federation;
Post: Senior Lecturer;
Email: tsklyarova@mail.ru.

*According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.


Ageeva Antonina


Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Education;
Place of work: St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University for the Humanities; 407, 9/2, Jlovaiskaya str., 109651, Moscow, Russian Federation;
Post: Senior Lecturer;
ORCID: 0000-0001-7259-1821;
Email: armusya@yandex.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.

The reported study was funded by RFBR according to the research project № 19-013-00228.
Shakurova Marina

On the formation of holistic competence of a teacher as an educationalist

Shakurova Marina (2020) "On the formation of holistic competence of a teacher as an educationalist ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia IV : Pedagogika. Psihologiia, 2020, Iss. 56, pp. 18-29 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIV202056.18-29
The modern teacher as an educationalist should possess holistic and, in fact, universal competence. This being said, both integrity and universality can and should be set on the basis of an integration principle. Now this principle is not fully developed and implemented in education sciences, the consequence of which is the domination of a summative (Russ. суммативный) approch that can allow one to reach certain quantitative results but does not provide qualitative transformations. The purpose of the article is to present results of the analysis of the essence and conditions of application of the principle of integration in designing, implementing and evaluating the formation of the holistic competence of teachers as educationalists on the initial level of personal and professional development. Main methodology of the study implies a combination of systemic and ontological approaches (“ontological qualities” of the system, logic of self-development, openness and self-organisation as essential properties of complex systems), principle of systematic analysis, principle of integration, competence-based approach. The study has been carried out with the use of theoretical (essence-related analysis and systematisation of the competence-based profi le of the teacher as an educationalist; analysis of integral characteristics of educational systems) and empirical (questionnaires, essays) methods. The study shows the correctness of the hypothesis about the domination on the standard- and individual-related levels of summative logic in evaluating the competence-based profi le of the teacher as an educationalist and selfawareness of college students of pedagogy as pedagogues-educationalists. Designing and development of the educational system of an institution of higher education on the principle of integration will allow one to create conditions for understanding the essence of unity, integration, professional and personal stance of the pedagogue and educationalist; for early immersion of the student into the educational space of the group, year, faculty and institution; for the development of a subject-based position as to the solution by the pedagogues, faculty, university to the educational tasks and selfdiscipline; for understanding of the essence and ways of forming integrated properties and qualities of the educational system, the role of members of this system in this process, of themselves as subjects.
competence, holistic competence, teacher as educationalist, integration, education, educational system, educational space
  1. Agoshkova A., Akhlibininskii B. (1998) “Evoliutsiya poniatiia sistemy” [Evolution of the concept of a system]. Voprosy filosofii, 7, 170–178 (in Russian).
  2. Fishman I., Golub G. (2007) Formiruiushchaia otsenka obrazovatel'nykh rezul'tatov uchashchihsia [Formative assessment of educational results of students]. Samara (in Russian).
  3. Grosheva R. (2014) “Model' professional'noi kompetentnosti pedagoga kak vospitatelia detei i podrostkov deviantnogo povedeniia” [Model of professional competence of the pedagogue as a teacher of children and teenagers with deviant behaviour]. Sovremennye problemy nauki i obrazovaniya, 2, available at http://science-education.ru/ru/article/view?id=12834 (08.12.2019).
  4. Kisliakov P. (2013) “Sistemno-lichnostnyi podkhod k formirovaniiu social'noi bezopasnosti budushchego pedagoga” [System-related and personal approach to the formation of social safety of the future teacher]. Psikhologicheskaia nauka i obrazovanie, 6, pp. 73–79 (in Russian).
  5. Modelirovanie fonda otsenochnykh sredstv po pedagogicheskim distsiplinam (2015) [Modelling of the inventory of means of assessment in pedagogical disciplines]. Voronezh (in Russian).
  6. Selivanova N., Shakurova M., Diuzhakova M. (2018) “Normativnyi obraz pedagoga kak vospitatelia v sovremennoi otechestvennoi sisteme obrazovaniia” [Standard image of the teacher as an educationalist in the modern Russian system of education]. Izvestiia Voronezhskogo gosudarstvennogo pedagogicheskogo universiteta, 3, 6–14 (in Russian).
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  8. Tolpykin V. (2011) “Sistemnost' kak metodologicheskii printsip sovremennoi postneklassicheskoi nauki“ [Systematicity as a methodological principle of modern post-non-classical science]. Teoriia i praktika obshchestvennogo razvitiia, 7, 27–29 (in Russian).

Shakurova Marina


Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in Education;
Academic Rank: Professor;
Place of work: Voronezh State Pedagogical University; 86 Lenina Str., Voronezh, 394043, Russian Federation;
Post: Professor, Department of General and Social Pedagogy;
ORCID: 0000-0003-4757-8750;
Email: shakurova@mail.ru.

*According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.

Article is prepared with fi nancial support of the Russian Federal Property Fund, the project 18-013-00613а «Socio-pedagogical determinants of the formation of the integrative properties of educational systems».
Smoljaninova Tatyana; Petrjaeva Tatyana; Busygina Julia

Image of the other person as a basis in formation of personal identity

Smoljaninova Tatyana, Petrjaeva Tatyana, Busygina Julia (2020) "Image of the other person as a basis in formation of personal identity ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia IV : Pedagogika. Psihologiia, 2020, Iss. 56, pp. 30-40 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIV202056.30-40
This article aims to expose the essence and meaningful characteristics of images of other persons for the formation of personal identity in the system of education. The methodology of the analysis applies the ontological, phenomenological, personalityoriented approaches. The image of the other person is underlain by the refl ection of reality, a reflexive act, ideal-typical construction in its various possible manifestations. For the growing personality and the formation of his or her identity, the dynamics of sensual and notional, standard-related and interpretative images are particularly significant. It is on the basis of meaningful images rather that ideals that the inclusion in group and community takes place; in the same way various types of identity develop. It is underlined that the interpretative images are extrmely sensual, are conditioned by the subjective position as to the other person, by results of the personal choice coloured by the signifi cance (both positive and negative); by certain results of the “adjustment”, inclusio of subjective senses and evaluations which allow the person to maximally “possess” the other person, employ him or her as a “mirror” in making one’s own image and identity more precise. One’s own choice is abundant of accidental traits and is underlain by subjective perception of reality, specifi c experience and values. The normative image is off ered from the outside in already preset parameters. In some cases, the image can be dissociated from its bearer and be off ered as an example. Its formal adoption is obligatory, the real adoption is only possible if there are arguments in favour of the adoption. Subjective assessment can be preset and is obligatorily maintained from the outside. An important role in internalising these images is played by cognition. Using the image of mother as an example, the article shows characteristic features of forming social identity; using the image of the teacher it shows school-related identity. Special attention is paid to the images of historically and culturally signifi cant fi gures in forming the school student’s identity.
image of other person, interpretative image, standard image, social identity, school identity, image of mother, image of teacher
  1. Goriachev V. (2013) “Kratkii istoricheskii analiz ponimaniia obraza v otechestvennoi psihologii” [A short historical analysis of understanding of an image in Russian psychology]. Mir nauki, kul'tury, obrazovaniia, 2 (39), 66–69 (in Russian).
  2. Gutner G. (2009) “Vozmozhnyi argument v pol'zu fenomenologicheskogo podkhoda” [Possible argument in favour of the phenomenological approach]. Epistemologiia i filosofiya nauki, 2, 47–50 (in Russian).
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  4. Kontorovich S. (2010) “Nekotorye aspekty obraza materi i ikh otrazhenie v predstavleniiakh sovremennykh rossiian” [Some aspects of the image of mother and their refl exion in ideas of modern Russians]. Vestnik Tikhookeanskogo gosudarstvennogo ekonomicheskogo universiteta, 1, 101–107 (in Russian).
  5. Kotova S., Moshko M. (2011) “Obraz uchitelia nachal'noi shkoly glazami roditelei i samikh uchitelei” [Image of the teacher of elementary school in eyes of parents and teachers themselves]. Gertsenovskie chteniia. Nachal'naia shkola. St Petersburg. Pp. 330–336 (in Russian).
  6. Luzina L. (2011) “Ontologicheskaia kontseptsiia vospitaniia: traditsii i perspektivy” [The ontologic conception of education: traditions and prospects], available at http://www.emissia.org/offl ine/2001/830.htm (08.12.2019).
  7. Razina L. (2017) “Osobennosti vospriiatiia uchitelia mladshimi shkol'nikami” [Features of perception of the teacher in younger schoolchildren]. Nachal'naia shkola, 2, 5–10 (in Russian).
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  11. Vodiakha iu. (2015) “Sravnitel'nyi analiz obraza ottsa i obraza materi u podrostkov s Internetzavisimost'iu” [Comparative analysis of the image of father and image of mother in teenagers with Internet addiction]. Pedagogicheskoe obrazovanie v Rossii, 1, 119–123 (in Russian).

Smoljaninova Tatyana


Student status: Graduate student;
Place of study: Voronezh State Pedagogical University; 86 Lenina Str., Voronezh, 394043, Russian Federation;
ORCID: 0000-0002-8051-6183;
Email: t.smolyaninova@inbox.ru.

Petrjaeva Tatyana


Student status: Graduate student;
Place of study: Voronezh State Pedagogical University 86 Lenina Str., Voronezh, 394043, Russian Federation;
ORCID: 0000-0002-0621-2165;
Email: tanyapetryaeva@yandex.ru.

Busygina Julia


Student status: Graduate student;
Place of study: Voronezh State Pedagogical University 86 Lenina Str., Voronezh, 394043, Russian Federation;
ORCID: 0000-0002-5167-4799;
Email: padobus@rambler.ru.
Kupriianov Boris

Children’s and adults’ conventions of the soviet past (on materials of present-day memoirs about pioneer camps of the 1960–80s)

Kupriianov Boris (2020) "Children’s and adults’ conventions of the soviet past (on materials of present-day memoirs about pioneer camps of the 1960–80s) ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia IV : Pedagogika. Psihologiia, 2020, Iss. 56, pp. 41-56 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIV202056.41-56
In order to reconstruct children’s and adult’s conventions in prioneer camps of the 1960-80s, this article uses fi ndings of the economic theory of conventions, the theses of “modus vivendi” (temporary agreement), M. Foucault’s statements on “discursive ensembles”, on the range of roles of participants in certain relations, on the theoretical construction of “making disciplined”, as well as the concept of oral history. The study is aimed to characterise the process of conventionalisation of the child’s relationship with adults in the pioneer camp using present-day memories of events of the second half of the twentieth century. The main method involves structured interviews conducted in 2017–2019 in fi ve territories (North-West and Central Russia, Urals, Siberia). The respondents were born in 1953–1973; as a result, fragments of 139 interviews were processed. To reconstruct the parent-child conventions, we analysed the situation when a trip to the pioneer camp was undesirable for a child. As a result of processing the materials, two types of conventions were identifi ed (primary and secondary); the primary convention came to be a result of the parents’ concessions and could be maintained throughout the entire camp shift; the secondary convention was activated in circumstances where conditions of the primary convention were unacceptable for the child. The convention of children with camp group leaders in the pioneer camp was studied on the material of children’s pranks. Based on the results of the interview, it was possible to evaluate the strategies of camp leaders’ response to children’s pranks in the context of tactical results and possible consequences, from the point of view of ensuring the child’s safety, observing labour discipline and offi cial duties as a pioneer camp employee.
history of Soviet childhood, pioneer camp, parent-child relations, relations of camp group leaders and children, theory of social conventions
  1. Arapova P. (2018) “Narrativnoe interv'iu kak metod issledovaniia vneshkol'noi povsednevnosti sovetskikh shkol'nikov” [Narrative interview as a method of studying everyday life of Soviet schoolchildren when not at school]. Sibirskii pedagogicheskii zhurnal, 5, 29–38 (in Russian).
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Kupriianov Boris


Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in Education;
Academic Rank: Professor;
Place of work: Institute of Pedagogy and Psychology of Education, Moscow City Pedagogical University;
Post: Professor;
ORCID: 0000-0002-1041-6056;
Email: boriskuprianoff2012@yandex.ru.

*According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.

The article was financially supported by RFFI, project No. 18-013-00890a. Thanks to I. Demakova and I. Kolesnikova for supporting the idea of studying children's pranks. Colleagues A. Kudryashov, R. Lebedev, I. Smirnova for their participation in the development of this idea.
Kudryashev Aleksey

Chewing gum in context of everyday life of soviet schoolchildren (on materials of periodicals of the 1960s — 1970s)

Kudryashev Aleksey (2020) "Chewing gum in context of everyday life of soviet schoolchildren (on materials of periodicals of the 1960s — 1970s) ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia IV : Pedagogika. Psihologiia, 2020, Iss. 56, pp. 57-73 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIV202056.57-73
Following the historical and pedagogical line of studying everyday life of children that has been developing in recent years, an attempt was made to reconstruct the changes in lives of Soviet schoolchildren associated with the spread of chewing gum in the 1960s and 1970s. On the example of chewing gum, we can see such historical trends as the global “consumer revolution”, fl uctuation in the offi cial discourse under the pressure of social realities, the cold war. Children’s magazines and pedagogical periodicals actually refl ected several layers of reality, i.e. everyday life of teenagers (purchase and use of chewing gum), educational practices as a reaction to changes in everyday life, and offi cial educational discourse. The main source of reconstruction of everyday life was publications of the Soviet periodical press (the newspaper Pionerskaya pravda and the magazine Sem’ya i shkola). The research method in the article implies viewing the newspaper and the magazine issue-by-issue from 1961 to 1979 with a subsequent selection of materials about teenagers’ life in connection with getting and consuming foreign chewing gum. Materials of the periodicals are supplemented by memoirs of contemporaries, testimonies from journalism and fi ction. Based on the analysis and interpretation of texts of the newspaper “Pionerskaya pravda” and the magazine “Family and school”, the functions of chewing gum in everyday life of Soviet teenagers are formulated; these are consuming the gum as it is designed, gamerelated function, collecting and sharing, inducing cognitive interest, dreams about a different reality, identifi cation with a reference group, and improving the social status of a teenager. Among the socio-cultural practices, the article allows one to register the purchase of chewing gum as part of an illegal trade or exchange, begging for chewing gum from foreigners or from Soviet sailors, the persecution of illegal traders by pioneer activists, educational practices. Analysis of texts from selected articles makes it possible to identify specific speech practices: words that arose to denote cultural practices and a specific speech practice of using deliberate Americanisms, a special educational discourse; urban legends.
historical anthropology of childhood, history of education in USSR, everyday life of Soviet teenagers in 1960s and 1970s, consumer society, periodicals as historical and pedagogical source, Pionerskaya Pravda
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  13. Orlov I., Popov A. (2018) Skvoz’ ‘zheleznyi zanaves [Through the iron curtain]. Moscow (in Russian).
  14. Panfi lova T. (1956) “Shchastlivoe detstvo — ne bezdel'ie” [A happy childhood is not about fooling around]. Rabotnitsa, 10, 28 (in Russian).
  15. Pizhurina N. (1979) Sverkaiushchie obiortki, iarkie iarlychki i iskrennyaia druzhba [Sparkling wrappers, bright labels and sincere friendship]. Pionerskaia pravda, 52, 2 (in Russian).
  16. Radosteva E. (1979) “Tiotia, daite zhvachku” [Aunt, give a gum]. Pionerskaia pravda, 34, 3 (in Russian).
  17. Romanov P., Iarskaia-Smirnova E. (2003) “Chistaia fartsa”: sotsial'nyi opyt vzaimodeistviia sovetskogo gosudarstva i spekuliantov” [“Purely illegal trade”: social experience of interaction between the Soviet state and spivs], in Neformal'naia ekonomika v postsovetskom prostranstve: problemy issledovaniia i regulirovaniia [Informal economy in the post-Soviet space: problems of research and regulation]. St Petersburg. Pp. 148–163 (in Russian).
  18. Romanov P., Iarskaya-Smirnova E. (2007) “Truzera i kraby dlia sovetskogo potrebitelia: budni podpol'nogo kapitalizma fartsovshchikov” [Undies and crabs for the Soviet consumer: life in the underground capitalism of spivs], in Professii.doc. Sotsial'nye transformatsii professionalizma: vzgliady snaruzhi, vzgliady iznutri [Professions.doc. Social transformations of professionalism: views from the outside, views from the inside]. Moscow. Pp. 152–169 (in Russian).
  19. Russkoe detstvo XIX–XX vv.: kul'turno-antropologicheskii slovar' (2012) [Russian childhood of the 19‒20th centuries: cultural and anthropological dictionary]. St. Petersburg (in Russian).
  20. Sal'nikova A., Khamitova Zh. (2013) “Zhurnal ‘Sovetskaia igrushka’ kak istochnik po istorii sovetskogo detstva 30-kh godov XX veka” [Magazine “Soviet Toy” as a source for the history of Soviet childhood of the 1930s]. Uchenye zapiski Kazanskogo universiteta. Seriia: Gumanitarnye nauki, 155, 1–3, 200–211 (in Russian).
  21. Slovar' novykh slov russkogo iazyka (seredina 50-kh — seredina 80-kh godov) (1995) [Dictionary of new words in the Russian language (mid-50s — mid-80s)]. St. Petersburg (in Russian).
  22. Troitskii A. (2019) Subkultura. Istoriia soprotivleniia rossiiskoi molodezhi 1815–2018 [Subculture. The history of resistance of Russian youth, 1815–2018]. Moscow (in Russian).
  23. Vasil’iev D. (2007) Fartsovshchiki. Kak delalis’ sostoianiia. Ispoved’ liudei “iz teni” [Spivs. How fortunes were made. Confessions of people “from the grey zone”]. St Petersburg (in Russian).
  24. Vatsiete L. (1962) “Dva prikaza TK” [Two orders of TK]. Pionerskaia pravda, 103, 3 (in Russian).
  25. Vneshkol'naia povsednevnost' sovetskikh shkol'nikov (v materialakh gazety “Pionerskaya pravda” 1959–1988 gg.) [Out-of-school everyday life of Soviet schoolchildren (on materials of the newspaper Pionerskaya Pravda, 1959‒1988)]. Kostroma (in Russian).
  26. “Zhevatel'naia rezinka: pol'za ili vred” (1976) [Chewing gum: benefi t or harm]. Sem'ia i shkola, 7, 10 (in Russian).

Kudryashev Aleksey


Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Education;
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Education;
Academic Rank: Associate Professor;
Place of work: Moscow city pedagogical University; 4 Vtoroi Sel'skohozyaystvennyi proezd, Moscow, 129226, Russian Federation;
Post: associate professor of department of the pedagogy;
ORCID: 0000-0003-0338-2940;
Email: Kud.al@mail.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.

This article was financially supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, project № 18-013-00890a.
Stanovskaya Tatiana

The study of orthodox church service at schools in Russia: history and modernity

Stanovskaya Tatiana (2020) "The study of orthodox church service at schools in Russia: history and modernity ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia IV : Pedagogika. Psihologiia, 2020, Iss. 56, pp. 74-93 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIV202056.74-93
This article discusses methodological features of teaching the most important section of the course in religious education, i.e. the doctrine of church service, in the pre-revolutionary period. Drawing on the statutory and regulatory documents and methodological developments, the article identifi es the purpose, objectives and content of the study of church service in pre-revolutionary schools, as well as methodological features of its teaching, namely the methods of explanation, order of study, training media, knowledge assessment. The most signifi cant part in this study is the principles underlying the teaching of church service; these were studied by the author of this article earlier on the basis of conceptual foundations of the course in religious education as a whole. The final part of the article examines the current state of the methodology of teaching church service in Orthodox schools in Russia (secondary Orthodox schools with an Orthodox component and Sunday schools). Based on the analysis of regulatory documents, the article outlines the content of the section on church service in the programme of the course “Fundamentals of the Orthodox Faith” in presentday Orthodox schools, as well as possible prospects for their development with taking into account the experience of pre-revolutionary schools. In its conclusion, the article gives a brief overview of main teaching media for the study of church service in modern Orthodox schools as well as refl ections of the author on the qualitative development of teaching technique for the Foundations of the Orthodox Faith in general and church service in particular.
church service, religious education, teacher of religious education, parish school, methods of teaching, principles of study of church service, visibility, method of explanation, Orthodox faith, Fundamentals of Orthodox Faith, Orthodox school, school with Orthodox component, educational and methodical manual, historical experience
  1. Amfi lokhii (Radovich) (2005) Chelovek — nositel' vechnoi zhizni [Man as a bearer of eternal life]. Moscow (in Russian).
  2. Averkii (Taushev). Liturgika [Liturgics], available at https://azbyka.ru/otechnik/Averkij _Taushev/liturgika/ (16.01.2020)
  3. Divnogortseva S. (2008) “Antropologicheskaia bezuprechnost' pravoslavnoi sistemy vospitaniia” [Anthropological fl awlessness of the Orthodox system of education]. Materialy XIX Ezhegodnoi bogoslovskoi konferentsii PSTGU (9–12 oktiabria 2008 g.) [Proceedings of the 19th Annual Theological Conference of St Tikhon’s University]. Pp. 196–199 (in Russian).
  4. Faddei (Uspenskii) (2003) Tvoreniia. Zapiski po didaktike [Works. Notes on didactics], book 2. Tver' (in Russian).
  5. Perechen' primernykh rabochikh programm kursa Standarta pravoslavnogo komponenta nachal'nogo (obshchego), osnovnogo (obshchego), srednego (polnogo) obshchego obrazovaniia dlia uchebnykh zavedenii Rossiiskoi Federatsii [List of approximate working programmes of the course of the standard Orthodox component in primary (general), main (general), secondary (full) general education for educational institutions of the Russian Federation], available at https://pravobraz.ru/perechen-primernyx-rabochix-programm-standarta-pravoslavnogokomponenta-obshhego-obrazovaniya/ (16.01.2020).
  6. Standart pravoslavnogo komponenta nachal'nogo obshchego, osnovnogo obshchego, srednego (polnogo) obshchego obrazovaniia dlia uchebnykh zavedenii Rossiiskoi Federatsii [Standard of Orthodox component of primary general, basic general, secondary (full) general education for educational institutions of the Russian Federation], available at https://pravobraz.ru/pravoslavnyj-komponent-osnovnoj-obshheobrazovatelnoj-programmy-doshkolnogoobrazovaniya-dlya-pravoslavnogo-doshkolnogo-obrazovatelnogo-uchrezhdeniya-naterritorii-rossij skoj-federacii/ (16.01.2020).
  7. Standart uchebno-vospitatel'noi deiatel'nosti v Voskresnykh shkolakh (dlia detei) Russkoi Pravoslavnoi Tserkvi na territorii Rossiiskoi Federatsii [Standard of educational activity in Sunday schools (for children) of the Russian Orthodox Church in the territory of the Russian Federation], available at https://pravobraz.ru/standart-uchebno-vospitatelnoj-deyatelnosti-v-voskresnyx-shkolaxdlya-detej-russkoj-pravoslavnoj-cerkvi-na-territorii-rossij skoj-federacii/ (16.01.2020).
  8. Stanovskaia T. (2015) “Metodicheskie osobennosti izucheniia molitvy na urokakh Zakona Bozhiia v pravoslavnoi shkole: opyt dorevoliutsionnoi shkoly” [Methodological features of the study of prayer in the lessons of religious education in the Orthodox school: experience of the pre-revolutionary school]. Vestnik PSTGU. Ser. IV: Pedagogika. Psikhologiia, 1 (36), 46–55 (in Russian).
  9. Zander L. (1928) Pravoslavnoe bogosluzhenie kak osnova religioznogo prepodavaniia [Orthodox church service as a basis of religious teaching]. Voprosy religioznogo vospitaniia i obrazovaniia, 2. Paris. Pp. 75–82 (in Russian).

Stanovskaya Tatiana


Place of work: St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University for the Humanities; 6/1 Likhov pereulok, Moscow, 127051, Russian Federation;
Post: Lecturer;
ORCID: 0000-0001-9667-6125;
Email: taaldu@gmail.com.

PSYCHOLOGY

Lifintsev Dmitry; Lifintseva Alla; Antsuta Anna

Supervision in training of helping professionals: the problem of psychological boundaries

Lifintsev Dmitry, Antsuta Anna, Lifintseva Alla (2020) "Supervision in training of helping professionals: the problem of psychological boundaries ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia IV : Pedagogika. Psihologiia, 2020, Iss. 56, pp. 97-105 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIV202056.97-105
This article describes and analyses the problems of employng supervision in the academic process of training students who are future helping professionals (clinical psychologists, psychologists, social workers). Supervision is presented as a special type of professional relations and interpersonal contact between the supervisor (teacher) and the one supervised (student), the result of which is the professional development. The article presents the normative, reconstructive-supporting and formative functions of supervision. It discusses the problems of using supervision in the system of higher education, i.e. the supervisor’s adherence to a certain psychological school, the limitations of formats and its functions, the duality of relations between the supervisor and the trainee. The article also presents results of an empirical study, the purpose of which was to evaluate and analyse the problems of using the supervision in training of future specialists in helping professions. The main diffi culties in using supervision in the higher education system mentioned by the participants of the study are the preparation of a case for supervision, lack of compliance of supervision with real professional needs of the trainee, issuing orders and commanding alongside the lack of alternatives in selecting the supervisor, inability to discuss personal issues in the supervisory process and the “permeability” of psychological boundaries. Most participants in the study proposed to withdraw supervision from the academic process, leaving it to curators of practical activities that are not connected with the institution of higher education. The main focus of supervision should be the development of students’ professional identity; training in emloying techniques; ability to transform knowledge into practice; ability of professional self-awareness.
supervision, psychological boundaries, duality of interpersonal relations, professional training
  1. Bernard J. M., Goodyear R. K. (2013) Fundamentals of Clinical Supervision. Edinburgh.
  2. Corey G., Haynes R., Moulton P., Muratori M. (2010) Clinical Supervision in the Helping professions: A practical guide. Washington, DC.
  3. Ellis M., Berger L., Hanus A., Ayala E., Swords B., Siembor M. (2013) “Inadequate and Harmful Clinical Supervision”. The Counseling Psychologist, 42 (4), 434–472.
  4. Hess A. K. (1980) Psychotherapy Supervision: Theory, Research, and Practice. New York.
  5. Milne D. L., Watkins C. E. (2014) “Defi ning and Understanding Clinical Supervision”, in C. E. Watkins, D. L. Milne (eds) The Wiley International Handbook of Clinical Supervision. Oxford. Pp. 1–19.
  6. Robiner W. N., Fuhrman M., Ristvedt S. (1993) “Evaluation Diffi culties in Supervising Psychology Interns”. The Clinical Psychologist, 46 (1), 3–13.
  7. Shchukina Iu. (2011) “Aktual'nye problemy supervizorskoi praktiki” [Current issues in supervisory practice], in Teoreticheskie i prikladnye aspekty deiatel'nosti Tsentra ekstrennoi psikhologicheskoi pomoshchi MGPU [Theoretical and applied aspects of the Centre for Psychological Emergency Assistance of Moscow City University]. Moscow (in Russian).

Lifintsev Dmitry


Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in Education;
Academic Rank: Associate Professor;
Place of work: Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, 15–14 Griga Street, Kaliningrad, 236006, Russian Federation;
ORCID: 0000-0001-9276-4363;
Email: psyrgu@gmail.com.

*According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.


Lifintseva Alla


Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in Psychological Sciences;
Academic Rank: Associate Professor;
Place of work: Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, 15–14 Griga Str., Kaliningrad, 236006, Russian Federation;
ORCID: 0000-0003-4047-3876;
Email: aalifintseva@gmail.com.

*According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.


Antsuta Anna


Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Education;
Academic Rank: Associate Professor;
Place of work: Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, 25-2 Mishina Str., Kaliningrad, 236006, Russian Federation;
ORCID: 0000-0002-7141-3377;
Email: allifintseva@gmail.com.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.

The study was supported by the Russian Foundation for Humanities, project №15-06-10871, «Social support as a communicative phenomenon in social work and pedagogical practice».
Litvinova Svetlana

Phenomenon of present-day preschoolers’ game subculture

Litvinova Svetlana (2020) "Phenomenon of present-day preschoolers’ game subculture ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia IV : Pedagogika. Psihologiia, 2020, Iss. 56, pp. 106-116 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIV202056.106-116
The purpose of this article is to study the phenomenon of children’s game subculture taking into account the current socio-cultural situation of preschoolers’ development. The article identifi es problem points in the theory and practice of preschool education from the perspective of applying game techniques. The characteristics of children’s play subculture are identifi ed by means of analysing early childhood memories and observing games of children of preschool age. The article presents results of rating the popularity of cartoons for children, shows the empirical relationship between the content of children’s games and popular cartoons. It is revealed that the game of the present-day child of preschool age refl ects archetypal and modern game patterns. It is established that children’s play subculture refl ects needs of children regardless of time. The article establishes facts of productive combinatorial character among children of preschool age which are manifested in integrating diverse roles and storylines and reflect the child’s need to maximally express his or her own desires in the situation “here and now”, to combine available ideas about his or her environment and create new game situations. The results of the study of the phenomenon of children’s game subcultures lead to the conclusion about the necessity of developing game techniques that would allow children to immerse in the space of their own capabilities and develop a set of skills signifi cant for their future, such as creative thinking, communicative ability, resourcefulness, readiness to respond to changes in the game situation.
game, children’s game subculture, social and cultural conditions for preschoolers’ development, typical game patterns, role-playing games, skills signifi cant for one’s future, characters
  1. Abramenkova V. (2000) Sotsial'naia psikhologiia detstva: razvitie otnoshenii rebenka v detskoi subkul'ture [Social psychology of childhood: development of child’s relationships in children’s subculture]. Voronezh (in Russian).
  2. Basenkova L. (2009) “Sovremennaia detskaia igrovaia subkul'tura i modelirovanie sotsial'nykh otnoshenii” [Modern children's game subculture and modelling social relations]. Vestnik Viatskogo gosudarstvennogo gumanitarnogo universiteta, 4, 96–98 (in Russian).
  3. Ivanova N. (2004) “O detskoi subkul'ture” [On children's subculture]. Doshkol'noe vospitanie, 4, 187–207 (in Russian).
  4. Kudriavtsev V., Alieva T. (1997) “Eshche raz o prirode detskoi subkul'tury” [Once again on the nature of children's subculture]. Doshkol'noe vospitanie, 3, 87–91; 4, 64–68 (in Russian).
  5. Litvinova S. (2007) “K probleme soderzhaniia siuzhetno-rolevykh igr sovremennykh doshkol'nikov” [The problem of the content of role-playing games of present-day preschoolers], in Traditsii i innovatsii v doshkol'nom obrazovanii: Sbornik tezisov mezhdunarodnoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii MPGU [Traditions and innovations in preschool education: Collection of abstracts of the international scientifi c and practical conference held at MPGU]. Moscow. Pp. 157–161 (in Russian).
  6. Novaia filosofskaia entsiklopediia (2010) [New encyclopaedia of philosophy]. Moscow (in Russian).

Litvinova Svetlana


Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Education;
Place of work: Zelenograd Branch of Institute of Business Administration, Moscow City University; 4 Vtoroy Sel'skokhozyaystvennyi proezd, Moscow, 129226, Russian Federation;
Post: director;
ORCID: 0000-0002-4589-3688;
Email: _litsveta_@mail.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.

Naumova Diana

Type of culture as a determinant in forming value orientations in russian students

Naumova Diana (2020) "Type of culture as a determinant in forming value orientations in russian students ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia IV : Pedagogika. Psihologiia, 2020, Iss. 56, pp. 117-126 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIV202056.117-126
This article aims to determine and analyse the determinants in the development of authoritarian and professional agenda among present-day university students. It describes and substantiates the following research methods: J. Townsend, “Cultural and Value Orientations”, T. Adorno “Public Opinion Poll”, E. Schein “Career Anchors”. In course of the research, three groups were formed. These groups include respondents that associate themselves with one of the three cultural types: traditional, modern and rapidly developing culture. In all the three groups the indicators of “authoritarian aggressiveness” and “authoritarian subordination” have equally high levels. The group “present” shows high level of association with antidemocratic ideology (employing T. Adorno’s methodology) and also the indicators “serving” and “stable job” (employing E. Schein’s methodology). Taking into account all the results, the article comes to the conclusion that respondents can associate themselves with diff erent types of culture, but traditional values for professional life preserve their importance. It contradicts modern trends of employment market. The respondents who associate themselves with modern culture are particularly prone to antidemocratic ideology.
culture, values, social agenda, authoritarism, authoritarian syndrome, profession, professional identity, professional agenda, young people
  1. Blau M. (1994) “Razlichnye tochki zreniia na social'nuiu strukturu i ikh obshchii znamenatel'” [Different points of view on social structure and their common denominator], in V. I. Dobren'kov (ed.) Amerikanskaia sotsiologicheskaia mysl': teksty [American sociological thought: Texts]. Moscow. Pp. 8–29 (in Russian).
  2. Demidova T. (2010) “Organizatsionnaia kul'tura kak psikhologicheskii faktor kar'iernykh orientatsii lichnosti” [Organisational culture as a psychological factor in career orientations of an individual]. Izvestiia Rossiiskogo gosudarstvennogo pedagogicheskogo universiteta im. A. I. Gertsena, 125, 22–27 (in Russian).
  3. Egorov I. (2018) “Spetsifi ka grazhdanskoi i professional'noi identichnosti studencheskoi molodezhi Rossii v zavisimosti ot tipa attitiuda patriotizma” [Specifi city of civil and professional identity of students in Russia depending on the type of attitude to patriotism]. Aktual'nye problemy psikhologicheskogo znaniia, 4 (49), 51–61 (in Russian).
  4. Markin V. (2011) “Determinanty formirovaniia individual'noi kar'ernoi strategii” [Determinants in the formation of an individual career strategy]. Sotsial'naia psikhologiia i obshchestvo, 4. Portal psikhologicheskikh izdanii PsyJournals.ru, available at http://psyjournals.ru/social_psy/2011/n4/48487_full.shtml (20.12.2019).
  5. Shneider L., Stashkevich O. (2018) “Attitiudy patriotizma v prostranstve obrazovaniia i vospitaniia” [Attitudes to patriotism in the space of education and upbringing]. Vestnik PSTGU. Ser. 4. Pedagogika i psikhologiia, 50, 11–21 (in Russian).

Naumova Diana


Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Psychological Sciences;
Academic Rank: Associate Professor;
Place of work: Moscow City University; 4 Vtoroy Sel’skokhozyaystvennyi proezd, Moscow, 129226, Russian Federation;
Post: associate professor, Department of psychology, Institute of educational psychology and pedagogy;
ORCID: 0000-0001-7427-0079;
Email: seroglazka3@yandex.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.

Voronin Sergey, диакон

Religiosity as a factor of subjective well-being of young people

Voronin Sergey (2020) "Religiosity as a factor of subjective well-being of young people ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia IV : Pedagogika. Psihologiia, 2020, Iss. 56, pp. 127-139 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIV202056.127-139
In modern conditions of material-oriented society, questions of existential nature often arise in human consciousness. Even being able to satisfy natural and cultivated needs, a person often experiences a persistent unfavourable state, which determines the emotional colour of his or her perception of life; this is a state that makes one unhappy. Opposing states of favourable character are described in psychological science in such terms as life satisfaction, psychological and subjective well-being, and, finally, happiness. The aim of this article is to study religiosity as a factor of subjective well-being of young people, a factor that has independent value in our attempt to learn a little more about the internal state of religious young people. The main objectives of the study are a theoretical analysis of the phenomena of religiosity and subjective well-being; determining the content-based component of the phenomena in question that can be empirically measured; empirical study of the infl uence of religiosity on the subjective well-being of young people; establishing and interpreting statistically significant relationships; outlining main results of the study. As a model of subjective well-being used in the study, M.V. Sokolova’s model is used. It includes both a scale of general subjective well-being and separate scales. This principle of construction characterises R. Yavorsky’s model of religiosity as well. The results of the study are presented in form of empirical links with diff erent levels of statistic signifi cance and their analysis in relation to the sample of young men and women separately. The fi nal part of the article makes a general conclusion as to the character, power and direction of the possible influence of religiosity on the subjective well-being of young men and women.
religiosity, subjective well-being, happiness, mental health, morals, religious practices, faith, religious self, healthy self-esteem, mood
  1. Chumakova D. (2011) “Religioznost' lichnosti: osnovnye podkhody, struktura i diagnostika” [Religious personality: main approaches, structure and diagnosis]. Vestnik Iuzhno-Ural'skogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriia: Psikhologiia, 42 (259), 111–114 (in Russian).
  2. Galiakhmetova L. (2015) “Blagopoluchie, sub»ektivnoe blagopoluchie, udovletvorennost' zhizn'iu: problema vzaimosviazi” [Well-being, subjective well-being, life satisfaction: the problem of interconnection]. Vestnik Bashkirskogo universiteta, 20 (3), 1114–1117 (in Russian).
  3. Iavorskii R. (2008) “Sposoby preodoleniia stressa u lits s raznym tipom religioznosti” [Ways to overcome stress in people with diff erent types of religiosity]. Psikhologiia, 3, 105–116.
  4. Lorgus A., priest (2014) Kniga o schast'e [Book of happiness]. Moscow (in Russian).
  5. Sidorenko E. (2002) Metody matematicheskoi obrabotki v psikhologii [Methods of mathematical processing in psychology]. St. Petersburg (in Russian).
  6. Sokolova M. (1996) Shkala sub»ektivnogo blagopoluchiia [The scale of subjective well-being]. Yaroslavl' (in Russian).
  7. Timofeeva A., Akhremenko S. (2016) “Faktory, vliiayushchie na sub»ektivnoe blagopoluchie lichnosti” [Factors aff ecting subjective well-being of the individual]. Novaia nauka: Teoreticheskii i prakticheskii vzgliad, 8 (88), 112–116 (in Russian).
  8. Tkachenko A. (2018) “Pravoslavnye ‘samoedy’. Chem bor'ba s grekhom otlichaetsia ot postoiannogo nedovol'stva soboi” [“Orthodox ‘self-devourers’. How struggle with sin is different from constant dissatisfaction with oneself]. Foma, 10 (186), 46 (in Russian).
  9. Vinichuk M. (2007) “Schast'e i sub»ektivnoe blagopoluchie v predstavlenii obydennogo soznaniia: etnopsikhologicheskii aspekt” [Happiness and subjective well-being as refl ected in everyday consciousness: ethno-psychological aspect]. Trudy Dal'nevostochnogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta, 147, 210–213 (in Russian).

Voronin Sergey, диакон


Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Education;
Place of work: Sochi State University; 94, Plastunskaya Str., Sochi, 354000, Russian Federation;
Post: Associate Professor, Department of Psychology and Defectology;
ORCID: 0000-0002-3530-1001;
Email: voronin.sochi@mail.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.