The paper answers the question why the Fourth Gospel does not cite the parables. The fi rst part presents a brief survey of the Gospels' parables and history of their studies. Some of them are discussed, namely that of the rich man and Lazarus (Lk 16. 19–31), the talents (Mt 25. 14–30, Lk 19. 11–26), the dishonest steward (Lk 16. 1–13), the lost sheep, coin and son (Lk 15. 3–7, 8–10, 11–32). These and the other parables of the same kind truly refl ect Jesus' missionary role. The combine the ordinary life situations and high ethical demands. However, the inner contradiction, typical of them, completely agrees with what is known of the Historical Jesus’ mission: «I came not to call the righteous but sinners to repentance» (Mk 2. 17). In the second part a thorough analysis of the usage of words and phrases such as μονή ‘dwelling place’ (14. 2, 23), τόπος ‘place’ (11. 48), Îδός ‘way, path’ (14. 4), Èρχου κα¸ Ìδε ‘go and see’ (1. 46), Àργάζεται ‘to work’ (5. 17), Èργον ‘work’ (6. 29), as well as πίστις ‘belief’, àνάστασις ‘resurrection’ in the Fourth Gospel is carried out. The episodes of the Cleansing of the Temple (2. 13–23) and Footwashing (13. 2–5) are identifi ed as basic for realization of the special meaning of these words and phrases. It is stressed that the wording, from one side, is not motivated by the contexts in its full volume and lacks, from the other side, of the required comments from the part of the author. It means the usage in question is a part and parcel of the author’s language behavior and not of Jesus himself. Through comparison with Rabbinic language of the epoch based on the modern scholarly researches these observations lead to the conclusion that the Gospel’s author was close to the heikhalot philosophy presented in I and II Enoch and apocalyptic tendencies of Jewish Literature of the Second Temple epoch. Neither aggada, nor midrash attracted the author, since not ethics but religious gnosis determined the centre of his interest.
Gospel, parable, temple, apocalyptism, religious gnosis
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