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St. Tikhon’s University Review . Series III: Philology

St. Tikhon’s University Review III :2 (42)

ARTICLES

Aksenov Aleksei

Hawthorne’s Religious Plight: Between Dogma and Intuition

Aksenov Aleksei (2015) "Hawthorne’s Religious Plight: Between Dogma and Intuition ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia III : Filologiia, 2015, Iss. 42, pp. 9-23 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIII201541.9-23
On the basis of Nathaniel Hawthorne’s notebooks, letters and other sources the author endeavors to characterize the religious views of the writer and his world outlook, hoping that this can contribute to a more profound and adequate appreciation of his artistic heritage. A significant portion of the material discussed in the article is presented in Russian for the first time. The author arrives at the conclusion that Hawthorne was a deeply religious person, and his religiosity remains generally in keeping with traditional Christianity. But Hawthorne in his mature years never belonged to a religious community, and his faith is therefore emotional and intuitive, rather than dogmatic and institutional by nature. Hawthorne’s faith, while staying within the bounds of Christian orthodoxy (in its broadest sense, as opposed to his mother’s anti-Trinitarian Unitarianism or pantheistic American transcendentalism of his intellectual circle), — can also be defi ned in terms of «secular religion» characteristic of romanticism in general. Here the concept of the sacred is identified with subjective human perceptions and emotions. This sets the tension in Hawthorne’s life and work between his faith in the minimal set of dogmatic truths and romantic sacralization of human emotion
Nathaniel Hawthorne, religion, faith, Puritanism, Romanticism, Christianity, American literature

1. Melvill G. 1977 “Gotorn i ego «Mhi Staroj usad'by»” (Hawthorne and His “Mosses from an Old Mans”), in Nikoljukin A. N. (ed.) Jestetika amerikanskogo romantizma, Moscow, 1977.
2. Waggoner H. H. 1964 “Art and Belief”, in Pearce R. H. (ed.) Hawthorne Centenary Essays, Ohio State University Press, 1964.

Aksenov Aleksei

Al'brekht Ol'ga

The Province as a Tragic Space in the French realistic and naturalistic prose of the 50–70-s of the XIX-th century

Al'brekht Ol'ga (2015) "The Province as a Tragic Space in the French realistic and naturalistic prose of the 50–70-s of the XIX-th century ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia III : Filologiia, 2015, Iss. 42, pp. 24-32 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIII201541.24-32
The paper deals with «the province» as a kind of artistic space in the French narrative literature of the second half of the nineteenth century. The author analyses some fragments of texts by G. Flaubert, E. Duranty, E. Zola and comes to the conclusion that certain characteristic features of the space of classical tragedy are present in literary works of realists and naturalists. The paper confirms the thesis that since the second half of the 19th century, when the tragedy as a living genre of the French literature had already disappeared, the realistic and naturalistic novel has occupied the place that the tragedy had occupied before. The definition of the tragic hero and the tragic space given by R. Barthes («On Racine», 1963) serves as a basis for comparing artistic spaces of the classical tragedy and of the naturalistic novel of the mid-19th century. A careful examination of the motif of enclosed space and the motif of boundaries of the space (with the hero overcoming these boundaries) is central in this respect. The paper also pays attention to some features of the artistic space of the French province, which appears to be similar to the space of myth. These features are as follows: the hierarchy (Paris and the outer world are regarded as a sacred space and the province itself as a profane space); the idea of the cyclic and closed-chain time with everlasting reproducing and repeating of events significant for the provincial circle; the fact that the characters’ notions of the space are detached from actual geographical parameters and scales. The paper points to the fact that the features of poetics of the classical tragedy observed in the French naturalistic novel can be treated from the perspective of the total socio-biological determinism of human life. The idea of total determinism is a distinctive feature of the positivist philosophy of the mid-19th century. This idea deprives human life of any individuality and makes the person entirely dependent on impersonal laws that govern nature and society. This ideology provokes the renewal of the classical tragic conflict between the rebellious but ignorant individual and the omnipotent predestination. The author also supposes that French naturalists of the mid-19th century approached the problem of the individual’s revolt against this way of life as well as the total rejection of such a world. However, the naturalists of that generation were fully aware of the meaninglessness and hopelessness of such a revolt.
determinism, myth, naturalism, province, provinciality, realism, tragedy, the tragic, French literature, artistic time, artistic space

1. Bart R. 1994 “Rasinovskij chelovek” (Human of Rasin), in Izbrannye raboty. Semiotika. Pojetika, Moscow, 1994.
2. Bahtin M.M. Voprosy literatury i jestetiki. Issledovanija raznyh let (Questions of Literature and Esthetics. Studies of Different Years), Moscow, 1975.
3. Zenkin S. N. Raboty po francuzskoj literature (Works on French Literature), Ekaterinburg, 1999.
4. Fisher J. O. Epoque romantique et réalisme : Problèmes metodologiques, Paris, 1987.
5. Dictionnaire thématique du roman de moeurs (1850 — Hamon Ph. 1914), Paris, 2003.
6. Mitterand H. Le regard et le signe : Poétique du roman réaliste et naturaliste, Paris, 1987.
7. Seillère E. Le romantisme des réalistes, Paris, 1914.

Al'brekht Ol'ga

Glazkov Aleksei

«Off-side pragmatics» of narrative (Ptolemy and text pragmatics)

Glazkov Aleksei, (2015) "«Off-side pragmatics» of narrative (Ptolemy and text pragmatics) ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia III : Filologiia, 2015, Iss. 42, pp. 33-43 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIII201541.33-43
The paper examines certain issues of text pragmatics. They are dealt with in the perspective of “off-side pragmatics”, whose objective is the study of relationships between the image of reality and the text, as well as the study of mechanisms of creating texts. The text is regarded as the result of the author’s comprehension of reality. This process corresponds to the relevance as it is understood by D. Wilson and D. Sperber, the only difference being that it lacks the ostensive stimulus. If the traditional pragmatics considers the statement which is known to be true, the “off-side pragmatics” deals with texts whose verity is not evident. The object of our study is a fragment from Ptolemy’s Almagest in which he describes his cosmogonic model. This text is considered in the light of the conception of possible worlds, each of which is represented by its own narrative. Ptolemy’s aim is to balance the narrative of the observer located on the Earth and the narrative of the observer looking at the Universe from outside. The paper analyses the way how these narratives are generated. The narrative of the observer who is located on the Earth is produced in the direction from the obvious to the global, whereas narratives of other observers are produced in the opposite direction. Ptolemy rejects a range of possible narratives that contradict the initial narrative and selects the single one which corresponds to the narrative of the observer placed on the Earth. Therefore, the main process in the communication between the individual and reality is inference, as it does lead to the understanding of reality; its reflection in the text makes up the content of the paper.
pragmatics, narrative, text linguistics, inference, reality, non-fi ction text, relevance, theory of relevance, possible worlds

1. Arutjunova N. D. 1982 “Lingvisticheskie problemy referencii” (Lingustic Problems of Reference), in Novoe v zarubezhnoj lingvistike, Moscow, 1982, vol. 13: Logika i lingvistika. (Problemy referencii), pp. 5–40.
2. Hintikka Ja. 2011 “Semantika modal'nyh ponjatij i neopredelennost' ontologii” (Semantics of Modal Ideas and Uncertainty of Ontology), in Vozmozhnye miry. Semantika, ontologija, metafizika, Moscow, 2011, pp. 371–399.
3. De Rosset L. 2011 “Commentary: David Lewis. On the Plurality of the Worlds”, in Humana. Mente. Journal of Philosophical Studies, 2011, vol. 19, pp.137–150.
4. Korta K., Perry J. Critical Pragmatics. An Inquiry into Reference and Communication, Cambridge, 2011.
5. Russel B. 1905 “On denoting”, in Mind, New Series, Oct., 1905, vol. 14/56, pp. 479–493.
6. Wilson D., Sperber D. 2002 “Relevance Theory”, in UCL Working Papers for Linguistics, 2002, vol. 14.
7. Yus F. 2009 “Relevance Theorie”, in Concise Encyclopedia of Pragmatics, Oxford, 2009, pp. 854–861.

Glazkov Aleksei

Nesterova Ol'ga

The Origins and Theological Grounds of the Origen's Concept of the Triple Sense of Scripture. Part three: An Opposition of Corinthians and Ephesians With Respect to Three Grades of Christian Perfection and Three Forms of Knowledge Corresponding to the Tr

Nesterova Ol'ga (2015) "The Origins and Theological Grounds of the Origen's Concept of the Triple Sense of Scripture. Part three: An Opposition of Corinthians and Ephesians With Respect to Three Grades of Christian Perfection and Three Forms of Knowledge Corresponding to the Tr ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia III : Filologiia, 2015, Iss. 42, pp. 44-58 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIII201541.44-58
The prominent Christian theologian Origen (185–254 AD) is properly regarded as the founder of a new method of biblical exegesis, which was based on the distinction between the three senses of Scripture. The aim of our research, presented in a series of three papers, is to trace theoretical origins and content of this methodological doctrine. The fi rst paper dealt with Valentinian soteriological doctrine of the three human races which possess the three respective types of knowledge. It also examined the criticism that this doctrine received in treatises of Clement of Alexandria; this criticism also served as the starting point in Origen’s reasoning on the same topic. The second paper showed the differences in the attitude of Clement and of Origen towards the Valentinian trichotomy as well as towards the texts of the Scripture involved in the discussion. It also contained an analysis of Origen’s treatment of the opposition of Corinthians and Ephesians as alleged recipients of the two different types of knowledge. The third and the last article of the cycle examines the relationship between Origen’s opposition of «Corinthians» and «Ephesians» and the doctrine of the three types of knowledge that correspond to the three senses of Scripture. This doctrine was put forward by Origen in the treatise On First Principles. It was also strengthened by the interpretation of a fragment from The Shepherd of Hermas. The paper also draws a general conclusion of the preceding analysis. Contrary to an opinion established in current literature, Origen’s ternary formula (which expressed the relationship of the three senses of Scripture and was based on the analogy with the threefold nature of man) stemmed not from this anthropological analogy but from a specific interpretation of the 2nd and 3rd chapters of the First Epistle to the Corinthians. Here, the opposition of «carnal» and «spiritual» Christians is intertwined with the motif of milk and meat, which symbolise the two forms of the teaching adjusted to different levels of religious and moral progress of Christians. In this interpretation, Origen was oriented to those conceptions which had already been employed by Valentinians and by Clement, who debated with them. However, the main point that made Origen different from his immediate predecessors was the principle of successive revealing of the three senses of biblical texts. On the one hand, this principle was regarded as the ascension from the basic step in the knowledge of God to the sublime step. On the other hand, it was seen as a three-step transition from the external, self-evident and commonly accessible sense of Scripture to its internal, concealed and mystical sense. The crucial point in Origen’s methodological system is the fact that it was based on the ternary model and not on the binary one (which was characteristic of Apostle Paul, who taught about the letter and the spirit of the Law; compare also Climent’s doctrine, which related the primitive faith to seeing the literal sense of Scripture, whereas the enlightened gnosis was associated with understanding its concealed allegorical sense).
Origen, Clement of Alexandria, Valentinians, Bible, exegesis, three senses of Scripture

1. Nesterova O. E. 2008 “Problemy interpretacii uchenija Origena o treh smyslah Svjashhennogo Pisanija v sovremennoj nauchnoj literature” (Problems of Interpretation of Origen’s Teaching about Three Senses of Holy Scripture in Modern Scholar Literature), in Rannehristianskaja i vizantijskaja jekzegetika, Moscow, 2008, pp. 27–30.
2. Bertrand F. Mystique de Jésus chez Origène, Paris, 1951.
3. Dively Lauro E. A. The Soul and Spirit of Scripture within Origen’s Exegesis, Boston, Leiden, 2005.
4. Harl M. Origène et la fonction révélatrice du Verbe incarné, Paris, 1958.
5. Lebreton J. 1922 “Les degrés de la connaissance religieuse d’après Origène”, in Recherches de Science Religieuse, 1922, vol. 12, pp. 265–296.
6. Pasquier A. 2006 “The Valentinian Exegesis”, in Kannengiesser Ch. (ed.) Handbook of Patristic Exegesis. The Bible in Ancient Christianity, Leiden; Boston, 2006, vol. 1, pp. 454–470.
7. Torjesen K. J. Hermeneutical Procedure and Theological Method in Origen’s Exegesis, Berlin, New York, 1986.

Nesterova Ol'ga

PUBLICATIONS

Frantsuzov Sergei

The story of the pious Israelite Hasana

Frantsuzov Sergei (2015) "The story of the pious Israelite Hasana ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia III : Filologiia, 2015, Iss. 42, pp. 61-94 (in Russian).

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Frantsuzov Sergei

Davydenkova Mariia

A dictionary of locutions from liturgical books by Protopriest A. I. Nevostruyev.

Davydenkova Mariia, Kaluzhnina Nadezhda, Strievskaya Ol'ga, Mazurina Natal'ia, , , (2015) "A dictionary of locutions from liturgical books by Protopriest A. I. Nevostruyev. ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia III : Filologiia, 2015, Iss. 42, pp. 95-113 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIII201541.95-113
The publication contains the second part of entries beginning in the letter И. Characteristic features of the edition of the Dictionary, lists of sources and abbreviations as well as explanatory notes were set out in detail in the preceding issues of the journal. All previous publications and separately the lists of abbreviations and sources can be accessed at the website of the Department of Philology at http://pstgu.ru/faculties/philological/science/slov_Nevostr/
Church Slavonic Language, lexicography, church service, hymnography, Protopriest A. Nevostruyev

Davydenkova Mariia

Man'kov Aleksandr

The Dialect of Gammalsvenskby: compiling a dictionary of an endangered language (drǟŋ— finn)

Man'kov Aleksandr (2015) "The Dialect of Gammalsvenskby: compiling a dictionary of an endangered language (drǟŋ— finn) ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia III : Filologiia, 2015, Iss. 42, pp. 114-126 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIII201541.114-126

Man'kov Aleksandr

BOOK REVIEWS

Kliueva Elena

Rev. of François Villon Œuvres complétes. Édition ètablie par Jacqueline Cerquiglini-Toulet, avec la collaboration de Laëtitia Tabard, Paris, Gallimard (Bibliothéque de la Plèiade, 598), 2014

Kliueva Elena (2015) Rev. of François Villon Œuvres complétes. Édition ètablie par Jacqueline Cerquiglini-Toulet, avec la collaboration de Laëtitia Tabard, Paris, Gallimard (Bibliothéque de la Plèiade, 598), 2014, Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia III : Filologiia, 2015, Iss. 42, pp. 129-135 (in Russian).

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Kliueva Elena

Aleksandrova Tat'iana

Rev. of Theodosius II: Rethinking the Roman Empire in Late Antiquity. Ed. C. Kelly. Cambridge, 2013

Aleksandrova Tat'iana (2015) Rev. of Theodosius II: Rethinking the Roman Empire in Late Antiquity. Ed. C. Kelly. Cambridge, 2013, Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia III : Filologiia, 2015, Iss. 42, pp. 135-139 (in Russian).

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Aleksandrova Tat'iana

CHRONICLE

Akopian Ovanes

The Bible and the Renaissance Humanism: translations, interpretations, contexts. The talk by O. Akopyan given at the Mediaeval seminar of the Department of Romance philology (December 2014)

Akopian Ovanes (2015) "The Bible and the Renaissance Humanism: translations, interpretations, contexts. The talk by O. Akopyan given at the Mediaeval seminar of the Department of Romance philology (December 2014) ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia III : Filologiia, 2015, Iss. 42, pp. 143-151 (in Russian).

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Akopian Ovanes