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St. Tikhon’s University Review . Series II: History. Russian Church History

St. Tikhon’s University Review II :4 (65)

ARTICLES

Zakharov Georgii

“Apostolic” and “Imperial” discourse in the development of the Roman Primacy in the 4th century

Zakharov Georgii (2015) " “Apostolic” and “Imperial” discourse in the development of the Roman Primacy in the 4th century ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia II : Istoriia. Istoriia Russkoy Pravoslavnoy Tserkvi, 2015, Iss. 65, pp. 9-26 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturII201565.9-26
The article is devoted to the evolution of the Roman primacy in the 4th century. The Christianization of the Empire accelerated the process of regional consolidation of the episcopate, but did not lead to the emergence of specific «imperial ecclesiology». At the same time in the 4th century, traditional apostolic ecclesiology has maintained its position both in the West and the East. We can distinguish two different types of the apostolic ecclesiology: locally-historical (the doctrine of St. Irenaeus and Tertullian) and universally-hierarchical (the concept of St. Cyprian of Carthage). The first can be fi nd in the works of pope Julius, St. Athanasius and in the letter of the council of Constantinople (382), the second — in the texts of St. Basil the Great and Palladius of Ratiara. At the same time on the council of Serdica (343) Western bishops supported the new “Roman” ecclesiological model. They proclaimed the Roman See as the Chair of Peter the only center of catholic communion and invested it with special legal prerogatives. In fact, this model was the result of ecclesiological synthesis of two early conceptions of apostolicity: the idea of apostolic origins of the Roman Church was connected with the idea of the primacy of Peter as the basis of the Church’s unity. In the future, this conception was adopted by the bishop of Rome. Pope Damasus I (366–384), developing the doctrine of the Roman See as sedes apostolica, actually put principle of Roman primacy above the principle of synodal consensus. Eastern bishops did not support this interpretation of the church order, defending the autonomy of the Eastern Churches. They proclaimed Constantinople New Rome, in fact, denying the uniqueness of the status of the Church of Rome.
Roman Church, Roman primacy, apostolicity, Roman Empire, Arian controversy, ecclesiology, canon law, council of Serdica, Julius I, Liberius, Damasus I.

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2. Zaharov G. E. «…Ibo nadlezhit byt' i raznomyslijam mezhdu vami»: Jekkleziologicheskaja problematika v istorii arianskih sporov (“No Doubt There Have to be Differences among You”: Ecclesiological Problems in the History of Arian Controversies), Moscow, 2014.
3. Zaharov G. E. Illirijskie cerkvi v jepohu arianskih sporov (IV — nachalo V v.) (Illyrian Churches in Time of Arian Controversies (IV — Begin of V Cent.)), Moscow, 2014.
4. Zaharov G. E. 2014 “Obraz Konstantinopolja v tvorenijah svt. Grigorija Bogoslova” (Image of Constantinople in Works of St. Gregorius Theologian), in Vestnik Universiteta Dmitrija Pozharskogo, 2014, vol. 1, pp. 244–251.
5. Zaharov G. E. 2015 “Rimskoe pervenstvo i razvitie instituta cerkovnogo sobora v jepohu arianskih sporov” (Rome Primacy and Development of Institue of Church Council in Time of Arian Controversies), in Vestnik PSTGU. Serija II: Istorija. Istorija Russkoj Pravoslavnoj Cerkvi, 2015, vol. 1/62, pp. 7–25.
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Zakharov Georgii

Izotova Ol'ga

Ideological confrontation between the Church and imperial authority in Byzantium in the early 9th century according to hagiographical evidence

Izotova Ol'ga (2015) "Ideological confrontation between the Church and imperial authority in Byzantium in the early 9th century according to hagiographical evidence ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia II : Istoriia. Istoriia Russkoy Pravoslavnoy Tserkvi, 2015, Iss. 65, pp. 27-36 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturII201565.27-36
The article concerns an iconoclastic definition of the Council of Constantinople of 815, which was proposed by Byzantine Emperor Leo V in the early 9th century. The author returns back to a forgotten discussion that dealt with a reconstruction of the definition made by Paul J. Alexander in 1953. The reconstruction was criticized by other researchers, but hagiography devoted to some contemporaries of the Council makes us to reflect on the Council’s attention to so-called «living images», which were opposed to the pieces of art, and interpretation of Gen. 1, 26. This is an important argument for the image theory, which was emphasized by Alexander. We do not try to make up a fi nal conclusion, but to suggest some reflections for further research.
icon, iconoclasm, the theory of the holy image, the Council of Constantinople of 815, Methodios I of Constantinople, Ignatius the Deacon, Nikephoros I of Constantinople, Euthymios of Sardis, hagiography

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Izotova Ol'ga

Voitenko Anton

Greek versions of the Life of Saint Onnophrius the Great and an archive by Father Joseph Paramelle (s.j, 1925–2011)

Voitenko Anton (2015) "Greek versions of the Life of Saint Onnophrius the Great and an archive by Father Joseph Paramelle (s.j, 1925–2011) ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia II : Istoriia. Istoriia Russkoy Pravoslavnoy Tserkvi, 2015, Iss. 65, pp. 37-49 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturII201565.37-49
The article focuses on the studies of the Greek manuscript tradition of the Life of Saint Onnophrius the Great, which is still almost unexplored. In this paper, based on analysis of the published versions of the Life, as well as copies of unpublished Greek manuscripts made by Father Joseph Paramelle, the existence of fi ve diff erent Greek versions of the Life (types I–V) is established. Among all the installed versions, the only one (type I) contains a text the closest to the original version of the Life. It is attested by three Greek manuscripts. All other types are later redactions of the original text. Types II–IV present the abridged versions of the Life, the type V is a partially shortened and strongly metaphrastic text descended probably from the Mount Athos. On the basis of circumstantial evidence, it was assumed the existence of at least another three versions of the Life
Saint Onnophrius the Great, hagiography, textual studies, Byzantine studies, Christian Orient, Egyptian monasticism

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2. Vojtenko A. A. 2011 “Kul't sv. Onufrija Velikogo v vizantijskom Egipte” (Cult of St. Onufrius the Great in Byzantine Egypt), in Vizantijskij vremennik, Moscow, 2011, vol. 70/95, pp. 114–123.
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Voitenko Anton

Feofanov Aleksandr

Social mobility of nobility of the first post-Petrine generation

Feofanov Aleksandr (2015) "Social mobility of nobility of the first post-Petrine generation ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia II : Istoriia. Istoriia Russkoy Pravoslavnoy Tserkvi, 2015, Iss. 65, pp. 50-57 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturII201565.50-57
In the present article important channels of recruiting political elite in the XVIII century is to be analysed on the basis of published sources and archives. The special attention is paid to such social elevator as education and mechanisms of the social mobility are to be researched. Proportion of people with «regular» education was low, but gradually increased. The groups were combined on the basis of proximity of two main criteria: the time of birth and time of entry into service. Those factors are to constitute generations. Generation means the community of people united in the sociocultural context, in this research we will concentrate on the initial conditions of socialization (social origin, education). A higher percentage of illiterate among greenhorns compared with literacy of the offi cer case is explained by the fact that not all from them became offi cers. Part of noblemen due to various diseases, being unfit for military service were to surrender office. Many who entered the service because of illiteracy and poverty could not get even the fi rst officer’s rank. For those who did not belong by birth to the serving elite a military education was a jumping-off place for a career. The literacy rate of nobles, despite the efforts of the regular state remained extremely low. Education was not to value for a significant part of the nobility, and the government had the power to force the representatives of the nobility to teach their offspring the minimum literacy and numeracy skills, as well as forcibly send greenhorns in the state educational institutions. More than a half of generals were children of a high-ranking top, the aristocracy, and were connected by related bonds with the reigning house, or received ranks due to «case». Representatives of the «noble proletariat», devoid of additional career opportunities in addition to immaculate service, were not always able to even hope to get chief offi cer ranks.
general officers, nobility, career advancement, social status.

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Feofanov Aleksandr

Gracheva Iuliia

The history of appearance of the Ministry of Public education in the domestic historiography

Gracheva Iuliia (2015) "The history of appearance of the Ministry of Public education in the domestic historiography ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia II : Istoriia. Istoriia Russkoy Pravoslavnoy Tserkvi, 2015, Iss. 65, pp. 58-69 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturII201565.58-69
Article is devoted to the history of appearance of the Ministry of Public education in the domestic historiography. The author sets oneself the task of observing a scientifi c study of activities of the Public education Ministry at the initial stage of its existence and revealing not studied aspects of this question. First researches of educational reforms implemented by Alexander I go back to 60 years of the 21th century. Works done by M. N. Suhomlinov and S. V. Rojdestvenskiy are rich with archives materials, they show succession of the instructive reforms made by Ekaterina II and Alexander I, the connection between the arrangement of public education in France, Poland and Germany with Russian educational system at the end of the 18 and beginning of the 19 centuries. During the post revolutionary period in scientific literature less attention was paid to the questions of initial period of existence of the Ministry of Public Education. At the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21th centuries scientists turned their attention again to the history of education system development in Russia. A large number of works of the modern day researches on university subject appeared and a qualitatively new period of study of the Public Education Ministry activities began. In F. A. Petrov’s monograph the major documents accepted by the ministry are analysed. A. Yu. Andreyev, studying the question of sources of a university autonomy in Russia, included domestic universities in the all-European context of development of university reforms. But despite the existing historiography, the initial stage of existence of the Ministry of Public education demands further researches.
Ministry of Public education, domestic historiography, university, Suhomlinov, Rojdestvenskiy, Andreyev.

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24. Rozhdestvenskij S. V. Ocherki po istorii sistem narodnogo prosveshhenija Rossii v XVIII — XIX vekah (Essays on History of Systems of People Enlightenment in Russia in XVIII–XIX Centuries), Saint-Petersburg, 1912, vol. 1.
25. Suhomlinov M. I. Materialy dlja istorii obrazovanija v Rossii v carstvovanie imperatora Aleksandra I (Materials for History of Education in Russia in Reign of Alexander I), Saint-Petersburg, 1866.
26. Andreev A. Ju., Posohov S. I. (eds.) Universitet v Rossijskoj imperii XVIII — pervoj poloviny XIX veka (University in Russian Empire in XVIII — First Half of XIX Centuries), Moscow, 2012.
27. Ferljudin P. I. Istoricheskij obzor mer po vysshemu obrazovaniju v Rossii (Historical Survey of Measures for High Education in Russia), Saratov, 1894.
28. Har'kovskij gosudarstvennyj universitet im. A. M. Gor'kogo za 150 let. 1805–1955 (Har’kov State A. M. Gorkij-University for 150 Years. 1805–1955), Har'kov, 1955.
29. Imperator Aleksandr I, ego zhizn' i carstvovanie (Emperor Alexander I, His Life and Reign), Saint-Petersburg, 1897, vol. 2.

Gracheva Iuliia

Andreev Andrei

The Curator of the Imperial University in the system of national education of the Russian Empire in the first half of the nineteenth century

Andreev Andrei, Tsygankov Dmitrii, (2015) "The Curator of the Imperial University in the system of national education of the Russian Empire in the first half of the nineteenth century ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia II : Istoriia. Istoriia Russkoy Pravoslavnoy Tserkvi, 2015, Iss. 65, pp. 70-97 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturII201565.70-97
The present article is devoted to the study of collective portrait of The Curator of the Imperial universities in Russia in the first half of the 19 th century in the context of domestic policy and on the background of the development of universities in the Europe. The author makes the conclusion about the existence of three generations of The Curators. Each generations of The Curators had a particular management skills, social connections and cultural competencies. The first generation of The Curators (the Curarors-founders) have tried to link the University world of Russia and Europe. A distinctive feature of the second generation of The Curator (the Curators-bureaucrats) began their intervention in the learning process within their own universities, which signifi cantly affected the freedom of teaching and learning in universities of Russia. Finally, the third generation of The Curators had created a new forms of University life after the introduction of the University Statute of 1835.
Curator, freedom of teaching, educational policy, University Charter, S. S. Uvarov, S. G. Stroganov

1. Andreev A. Ju. 2004 “Gumbol'dt v Rossii: ministerstvo narodnogo prosveshhenija i nemeckie universitety v pervoj polovine XIX veka” (Humboldt in Russia: Ministry of People Enlightenment and German Universities in First Half of XIX Century), in Rossijskaja istorija, 2004, vol. 2, pp. 37–55.
2. Andreev A. Ju. 1812 god v istorii Moskovskogo universiteta (1812 in History of Moscow University), Moscow, 1998.
3. Andreev A. Ju. Rossijskie universitety XVIII — pervoj poloviny XIX veka v kontekste universitetskoj istorii Evropy (Russian Universities of XVIII — First Half of XIX Centuries in Context of University History of Europe), Moscow, 2009.
4. Vitteker C. Graf S. S. Uvarov i ego vremja (Count S. S. Uvarov and His Time), Saint-Petersburg, 1999.
5. Galiullina R. H. 2009 “M. N. Musin-Pushkin — popechitel' Kazanskogo i Sankt-Peterburgskogo uchebnyh okrugov” (M. N. Musin-Pushkin — Curator of Education Districts of Kazan’ and Saint-Petersburg), in Sankt-Peterburgskij universitet v XVIII–XX vv.: evropejskie tradicii i rossijskij kontekst, Saint-Petersburg, 2009, pp. 90–91.
6. Zavgorodnjaja O. I. Formirovanie pravovogo statusa instituta popechitelej rossijskih universitetov v pervoj polovine XIX v.: Istoriko-pravovoe issledovanie (Forming of Law Status of Institute of Curators of Russian Universities in First Half of XIX Cent.: Historical-Law Study), Moscow, 2006.
7. Zajcev B. P., Posohov S. I. Popechiteli Har'kovskogo uchebnogo okruga (Curators of Har’kov Education District), Har'kov, 2000.
8. Zorin A. L. Kormja dvuglavogo orla… Literatura i gosudarstvennaja ideologija v Rossii v poslednej treti XVIII — pervoj treti XIX veka (Feeding of Two-Headed Eagle… Literature and State Ideology in Russia in Last Third of XVIII — First Third of XIX Century), Moscow, 2001.
9. Il'ina K. A. 2009 “Informacionnye resursy popechitelja uchebnogo okruga (pervaja chetvert' XIX veka)” (Information Resources of Curator of Educational District (First Quarter of XIX Century)), in Sankt-Peterburgskij universitet v XVIII–XX vv.: evropejskie tradicii i rossijskij kontekst, Saint-Petersburg, 2009.
10. Kostina T. V. 2010 “Akademik S. Ja. Rumovskij i Kazanskij universitet: Istoriograficheskij kontekst” (Academician S. Ja. Rumovskij and University of Kazan’: Historiographical Context), in Akademija nauk v istorii kul'tury Rossii XVIII–XX vekov, Saint-Petersburg, 2010, pp. 81–101.
11. Petrov F. A. Formirovanie sistemy universitetskogo obrazovanija v Rossii (Forming of System of University Education in Russia), Moscow, 2002–2003.
12. Posohov S. I. 2009 “Popechiteli Har'kovskogo uchebnogo okruga pervoj poloviny XIX veka: popytka reabilitacii” (Curators of Har’kov Educational District of First Half of XIX Century: Attempt of Rehabilitation), in Universitates — Universitety: nauka i prosveshhenie, 2009, vol. 4/9, pp. 40–42.
13. Andreev A. Ju., Posohov S. I. (eds.) Universitet v Rossijskoj imperii XVIII — pervoj poloviny XIX veka (University in Russian Empire in XVIII — First Half of XIX Centuries), Moscow, 2012.
14. Filippova Je. N. 2000 “Nikolaj Nikolaevich Novosil'cev” (Nikolaj Nikolaevich Novosil'cev), in Vo glave pervenstvujushhego uchenogo soslovija Rossii, Saint-Petersburg, 2000. S. 105–106.
15. Cygankov D. A. 2010 “Universitetskij popechitel' v Rossii: mezhdu cennostjami evropejskoj nauki i gosudarstvennoj sluzhby (vtoraja polovina XVIII — pervaja tret' XIX veka)” (University Curator in Russia: between Values of European Science and State Service), in Polijetnichnost' Rossii v kontekste istoricheskogo diskursa i obrazovatel'nyh praktik XIX–XXI vv. III Arsent'evskie chtenija, Cheboksary, 2010, pp. 515–527.
16. Cherkaz'janova I. V. 2010 “Akademicheskie uchenye v roli gosudarstvennyh chinovnikov (na primere popechitelej uchebnyh okrugov)” (Academic Scientists in the Role of State Officials (on Example of Curators of Educational Districts)), in Akademija nauk v istorii kul'tury Rossii XVIII–XX vekov, Saint-Petersburg, 2010, pp. 102–124 (and Appendix: spisok popechitelej uchebnyh okrugov Rossijskoj imperii (1803–1917) (List of Curators of Educational Districts of Russian Empire (1803–1917)): ibid., pp. 125–134).
17. Gundelach E. Die Verfassung der Göttinger Universität in drei Jahrhunderten, Göttingen, 1955.
18. Kahl W. Hochschule und Staat. Entwicklungsgeschichtliche Betrachtungen eines schwierigen Rechtvehältnisses unter besonderer Berücksichtigung von Aufsichtsfragen, Tübingen, 2004.

Andreev Andrei

Zaruba Elizaveta

Epistolary heritage of Saint Nicholas as a source of history Orthodoxy in Japan of the Meiji era

Zaruba Elizaveta (2015) "Epistolary heritage of Saint Nicholas as a source of history Orthodoxy in Japan of the Meiji era ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia II : Istoriia. Istoriia Russkoy Pravoslavnoy Tserkvi, 2015, Iss. 65, pp. 98-109 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturII201565.98-109
Active study of the epistolary heritage of St. Nicholas of Japan began only in 2000, when there were published 2 collections of letters of the Archbishop («I’m here all alone Russian» and «Visible will of God to enlighten Japan»), which became a good addition to a separate pre-revolutionary publications of the letters of this Church figure. With rare exception, the original letters have survived and are in collections of the RSHA, DM of RNB, RDM RSL and RSALA (in personal funds of recipients and funds of the Holy governing Synod). While until now this material has not been investigated in its totality, was not made an attempt to characterize its informative value for a variety of issues of Church history and the history of the Orthodox mission in Japan. In the present work attempts a comprehensive analysis and classification of 70 Epistles of Saint. The author proposes to divide the studied set of letters to the following semantic groups: letters to spiritual patrons and superiors, letters to fellow missionaries, as well as the letters of the Saint to the secular correspondents. The range of topics covered by Archbishop Nicholas in the Epistles, is extremely wide. Archbishop tells about the financial situation of the mission, raises the question of the occurrence of indigenous Japanese people in the clergy of the Orthodox Church, informed his interlocutors about the spread of Christianity and the response of the Japanese society for the development of Orthodoxy in this country. information contained in these letters makes this source an invaluable addition to the offi cial records, and one of the most important sources on the history of Japanese Orthodoxy of the Meij i era.
Russian Spiritual Mission, Japan, Saint Nicholas Kasatkin, Orthodoxy, epistolary heritage, chronology, Meiji period, the missionary

1. Bogoljubov A. M. 2004 “Pis'ma nachal'nika Russkoj Duhovnoj missii v Japonii, episkopa Nikolaja, k svjashhenniku Ioannu Ono (1905–1910) kak istochnik izuchenija Pravoslavnoj missii v Japonii” (Letters of Head of Russian Spiritual Mission in Japan, Bishop Nikolaj, to Priest Ioann Ono (1905–1910)), in Pravoslavie na Dal'nem Vostoke, Saint-Petersburg, 2004, vol. 4, pp. 103–107.
2. Bogoljubov A. M. 1998 “Pressa Rossii o Russkoj Duhovnoj missii v Japonii (period Mjejdzi, 1867–1912 gg.)” (Russian Press about Russian Spiritual Mission in Japan (Time of Meidzi, 1867–1912)), in Iz istorii religioznyh, kul'turnyh i politicheskih vzaimootnoshenij Rossii i Japonii v XIX–XX vekah, Saint-Petersburg, 1998, p. 71.
3. Gavrikov A. A. 2007 “Svjatitel' Nikolaj i ego «Pis'ma iz Japonii» po stranicam «Moskovskih vedomostej»” (St. Nikolai and His “Letters from Japan” according to Pages of “Moscow News”), in Vostok. Afro-aziatskie obshhestva: istorija i sovremennost'. Moscow, 2007, vol. 5, pp. 127–129.
4. Guzanov V. G. «Vash sluga i bogomolec»: Perepiska kontr-admirala S. O. Makarova s Nikolaem, episkopom Revel'skim, nachal'nikom Duhovnoj missii v Japonii 1888–1890 (“Your Servant and Devotee”: Correspondence of Rear Admiral S. O. Makarov with Nikolai, Bishop of Revel, Head of Spiritual Mission in Japan 1888–1890), Moscow, 2003.
5. Guzanov V. G. Ieromonah. Dokumental'noe povestvovanie. Zhizn' i podvigi svjatitelja Nikolaja Japonskogo (Documental Story. Life and Deeds of St. Bishop Nikolai of Japan), Moscow, 2002.
6. Danilushkina M. 1992 “Svjatitel' Nikolaj Japonskij i ego «Dnevniki»” (St. Bishop Nikolai of Japan and His “Diaries”), in Moskovskij zhurnal, Moscow, 1992, vol. 8, pp. 55–61.
7. Zaruba E. A. 2012 “Pravoslavie v Japonii: Problemy istoriografii” (Orthodoxy in Japan: Problems of Historiography), in Duhovnoe nasledie ravnoapostol'nogo Nikolaja Japonskogo, Moscow, 2012, pp. 243–254.
8. Kedrov N. 1912 “Arhiepiskop Nikolaj v pis'mah k prot. N. V. Blagorazumovu” (Archbishop Nikolaj in Letters to Archpriest N. V. Blagorazumov), in Russkij arhiv, Moscow, 1912, vol. 3, pp. 379–401.
9. Logachev K. I. 1996 “Russkaja Duhovnaja missija v Japonii i ee vzaimootnoshenija s drugimi hristianskimi missionerami” (Russian Spiritual Mission in Japan and Its Relations with Other Christian Missionaries), in Pravoslavie na Dal'nem Vostoke, Saint-Petersburg, 1996, vol. 2, pp. 41–43.
10. Logacheva L. N. “Japonija i Rossija v dnevnikah sv. Nikolaja Japonskogo” (Japan and Russia in Diaries of St. Nikolaj of Japan), in Pravoslavie na Dal'nem Vostoke, Saint-Petersburg, 1996, vol. 2. pp. 51–54.
11. Makarov S. O. Pravoslavie v Japonii (Orthodoxy in Japan), Saint-Petersburg, 1889.
12. Murzin B. A. 2012 “Pravoslavie na Tajvane: dejatel'nost' svjatitelja Nikolaja po organizacii missii” (Orthodoxy in Taiwan: Activity of St. Bishop Nikolai for Organization of the Mission), in Duhovnoe nasledie ravnoapostol'nogo Nikolaja Japonskogo, Moscow, 2012, pp. 146–152.
13. Samojlov N. A. 1996 “Strany Dal'nego Vostoka v vosprijatii russkogo missionera” (Lands of Far East in Perception of a Russian Missionary), in Pravoslavie na Dal'nem Vostoke, Saint-Petersburg, 1996, vol. 2, pp. 90–101.
14. Smulov A. M. 2012 “Svjatitel' Nikolaj Japonskij o nekotoryh problemah obshhestva i gosudarstva v nachale XX veka” (St. Bishop Nikolai) about Some Problems of Society and State in Begin of XX Century, in Duhovnoe nasledie ravnoapostol'nogo Nikolaja Japonskogo, Moscow, 2012, pp. 82–96.
15. Sergij (Tihomirov), ep. Pamjati Vysokopreosvjashhennejshego Nikolaja, Arhiepiskopa Japonskogo (s portretom ego) (To Memory of His Eminence Nikolaj, Archbishop of Japan (with His Portrait)), Saint-Petersburg, 1913.

Zaruba Elizaveta

Murzin Evgenii

“In the hour of trial”: the spiritual life and socio-political issues in sermons Archimandrite Alexander (Lovchiy)

Murzin Evgenii (2015) "“In the hour of trial”: the spiritual life and socio-political issues in sermons Archimandrite Alexander (Lovchiy) ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia II : Istoriia. Istoriia Russkoy Pravoslavnoy Tserkvi, 2015, Iss. 65, pp. 110-124 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturII201565.110-124
The article is devoted to the study of the Orthodox segment of the religious and social thought in Germany during the Third Reich. The basis of the research were «Sunday flyers» — sermons compiled in the period of 1941–1945 by the prior of the st. Nicholas church in Munich, archimandrite Alexander (Lovchiy), one of the most prominent figures of Russian Orthodoxy. The article shows what the current issues the preacher cared about, demonstrates the specificity of his perception of the events. The author explores such themes as USSR and the Russian Orthodox Church, Christianity and national socialism, Russian emigration and its historic mission, science and religion, etc. Reflecting about the fate of Russia, Archimandrite Alexander appreciate happenings in the USSR as the punishment of God for anti-Church policy of the Bolsheviks. Нe compares Godless Soviet Russia and Russian Empire and dreams about its revival. He believes that the revival of the Empire is the duty of the Russian emigration. Simultaneously with the rejection of Communist ideology, Alexander criticizes and national-socialism and accuses its followers of trying to rehabilitate the paganism, hatred and cruelty. The preacher contrasts the ideas of racial superiority the gospel love, compassion and mercy, which constitute the moral basis of European civilization and guarantee its further development. He calls for the conviction of the authorities in cases when their actions are contrary to gospel principles. The article traces a parallel between denunciatory sermons rev. Alexander and leaflets, distributed in Bavaria by members of anti-fascist youth organization «White rose». Denunciatory sermons and leaflets have not only similar content. They also belong to the same period of time (The autumn of 1942). Based on the analysis of the content of leaflets and sermons, as well as specific historical circumstances, the autor suggestes that the relationship between Archimandrite Alexander and the leader of the «White rose» Alexander Scmorel, parishioner of the st. Nicolas church, has private and confi dential nature
The Russian Orthodox Church abroad, WWII, opposition, religious and social thought, collaboration

1. Bart K. 1994 “Barmenskaja deklaracija” (Barmen Declaration), in Social'no-politicheskoe izmerenie hristianstva: Izbrannye teologicheskie teksty XX veka, Moscow, 1994, pp. 54–65.
2. Brovko L. N. Hristianskie Cerkvi v Germanii i nacistskoe gosudarstvo (1933–1945 gg.) (Christian Churches in Germany and Nazi State (1933–1945)), Moscow, 2013.
3. Garnov V. A. Cerkov' v Tret'em rejhe: rol' v obshhestve i vzaimootnoshenija s fashistskim gosudarstvom (1933–1945) (Church in the Third Reich: Role in Society and Relations with Fascist State (1933–1945)), Moscow, 1998.
4. Guardini R. Gospod' (The Lord), Brussel, 1994.
5. Nikitin A. K. Politika nacistskogo rezhima v otnoshenii russkoj pravoslavnoj obshhiny v Germanii (1933–1945 gg.) (Politics of Nazi Regime to Russian Orthodox Parish in Germany (1933–1945)), Moscow, 1998.
6. Tillih P. Sistematicheskaja teologija (Systematic Theology), Moscow, Saint-Petersburg, 2000, vol. 1–3.
7. Tillih P. Izbrannoe. Teologija kul'tury (Selected. Theology of Culture), Moscow, 1995.
8. Shkarovskij M. V. Krest i svastika. Nacistskaja Germanija i Pravoslavnaja Cerkov' (Cross and Fylfot. Nazi Germany and Orthodox Church), Moscow, 2007.
9. Shkarovskij M. V. Nacistskaja Germanija i Pravoslavnaja Cerkov'. Nemeckaja politika po otnosheniju k Pravoslavnoj Cerkvi i religioznoe vozrozhdenie na okkupirovannoj territorii SSSR (Nazi Germany and Orthodox Church. German Politics to Orthodox Church and Religious Renewal in Occupied Territory of USSR), Moscow, 2002.
10. Shkarovskij M. V. Politika Tret'ego rejha v otnoshenii Russkoj Pravoslavnoj Cerkvi v svete arhivnyh materialov 1935–1945 godov: Sb. dokumentov (Politics of the Third Reich to Russian Orthodox Church in Light of Archive Materials of 1935–1945: Collection of Documents), Moscow, 2003.
11. Gaede K. Russische Orthodoxe Kirche in Deutschland in der ersten Haelfte des 20. Jahrhunderts, Köln, 1985.
12. Haugg W. (ed.) Das Reichsministerium für kirchliche Angelegenheiten, Berlin, 1940.
13. Bonhoeffer D., von Bethge E. (eds.) Widerstand und Ergebung. Briefe und Aufzeichnungen aus der Haft, München, Hamburg, 1965.
14. 1955 “Aus der «Ethik» Dietrich Bonhoeffers”, in Fischer K. (ed.) Christlicher Widerstand gegen den Faschismus, Berlin, 1955; Bonhoeffer D. Gesammelte Schriften, München, 1958–1959.

Murzin Evgenii

PUBLICATIONS

Urvantseva Natal'ia

The people of the Church in the obituaries of the newspaper «Olonets diocesan Bulletin»(1898– 1918)

Urvantseva Natal'ia (2015) "The people of the Church in the obituaries of the newspaper «Olonets diocesan Bulletin»(1898– 1918) ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia II : Istoriia. Istoriia Russkoy Pravoslavnoy Tserkvi, 2015, Iss. 65, pp. 127-150 (in Russian).

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This publication presents bibliographic information created on the basis of obituaries published in the informal part of the magazine «Olonets diocesan Gazette (1898– 1918). Structure of the article includes the following data: date and place of birth (if date is unknown, specify age at time of death), date and place of death, education, academic degree, position, last place of service, connection to Olonets province. Biographies are arranged in alphabetical order. At the end of each entry, see bibliographic information. The most informative in regards biographical obituaries are devoted members of the clergy and teachers. Obituaries are a valuable source for the study of the life and activities of representatives of the Russian Orthodox Church and their role in the social and religious life Olonetskaya diocese. The value of the index is that after 1917 a considerable part of the clergy and members of their families have died or emigrated, and the rest were forced to conceal their belonging to this class. Church archives were also destroyed, so any documents or family stories about individual members of the pre-revolutionary clergy simply did not survive. In this situation, the obituaries in the «Diocesan Bulletin» is the only source of biographical information about many of the Orthodox clergy from parish priests to local bishops. Obituaries are a valuable source for the study of the life and work of the representatives of the Russian Orthodox Church and their role in social and religious life of the Olonets diocese.
«Olonetsky Diocesan Gazette», church periodicals, Olonetsk diocese, obituaries, biographies

Urvantseva Natal'ia

BOOK REVIEWS

Zakharov Georgii

Rev. of Arianism: Roman Heresy and Barbarian Creed / G. M. Berndt, R. Steinacher, eds. Farnham, 2014

Zakharov Georgii (2015) Rev. of Arianism: Roman Heresy and Barbarian Creed / G. M. Berndt, R. Steinacher, eds. Farnham, 2014, Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia II : Istoriia. Istoriia Russkoy Pravoslavnoy Tserkvi, 2015, Iss. 65, pp. 153-159 (in Russian).

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Zakharov Georgii