St. Tikhon’s University Review . Series II: History. Russian Church History

St. Tikhon’s University Review II :95


Antonov Nikolay

The Second Ecumenical Council in its historical and theological context

Antonov Nikolay (2020) "The Second Ecumenical Council in its historical and theological context ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia II : Istoriia. Istoriia Russkoy Pravoslavnoy Tserkvi, 2020, Iss. 95, pp. 9-32 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturII202095.9-32
The article examines the historical and theological context of the Council of Constantinople (381). In it, the theological and ecclesiastical/practical agenda of the Council and the events of the same are reconstructed based on surviving sources, and the reception of its resolutions at subsequent councils in 381–382 is examined. In the contextual part of the article, the events of the Antiochene Schism, the Council of Antioch (379), and the church political activities of Emperor Theodosius are considered. It is demonstrated that communication amongst diff erent factions in the church and the Emperor’s activities were intended to establish a catholic consensus while preserving the independence of the East. In reconstructing the events of the Council of Constantinople (381), the polemic concerning the succession in the Church of Antioch is considered, as are the confl ict surrounding the election of the bishop of Constantinople, the discussion of four canons of the Council, and various accounts of the provenance of the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed. Special attention is paid to the reception of the Council by Saint Gregory the Theologian, since his poem De vita sua is the most detailed source that describes the Council. It is shown that the Council’s decisions were received negatively at the Council of Aquileia (381) and the two sides were reconciled to each other in 382. The conclusion is that the concept of the “Second Ecumenical Council” in the Tradition of the Church brings together the acts of three councils of the Eastern Church from 379–382: while the main goal of the Council of Antioch (379) can be considered to be the re-esteblishment of communion between the Meletians and the Church of Rome, that of the Council of Constantinople (381) was to demonstrate the independence of the Eastern bishops from those of the West, and the next Council of Constantinople (382) was intended to set in stone both the East’s theological agreement with the West and its practical ecclesiastical independence, that is to say, it confi rmed the theology of the Council of 379 and the resolutions of that of 381. Aside from this, it is asserted that it is necessary to conduct a separate analysis of the theology of this period, since the documents from these councils cannot be considered as a fi nal result of the development of Trinitarian doctrine.
Second Ecumenical Council, church factions, councils, Tradition, triadology, Saint Gregory the Theologian, Antioch, Emperor Theodosius, Constantinople
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  16. Kuzenkov P. (2014) «Kanonicheskii status Konstantinopolia i ego interpretatsiia v Vizantii» [The canonical status of Constantinople and its interpretation in Byzantium]. Vestnik PSTGU. Seriia I, vol. 53, pp. 30–31 (in Russian). doi: 10.15382/sturI201453.25-51
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Antonov Nikolay

Student status: Graduate student;
Place of study: St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University for the Humanities; 6/1 Likhov pereulok, Moscow, 127051, Russian Federation;
Post: Member of the Ecclesiastical Institutions Research Laboratory, St. Tikhon’s University;
ORCID: 0000-0002-6588-1633;
Email: nickforgo@gmail.com.
Andreev Dmitry

“And here it is — the public opinion”: rumours and texts in the struggle to shape the course of the new reign at the end of 1894 — beginning of 1895

Andreev Dmitry (2020) "“And here it is — the public opinion”: rumours and texts in the struggle to shape the course of the new reign at the end of 1894 — beginning of 1895 ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia II : Istoriia. Istoriia Russkoy Pravoslavnoy Tserkvi, 2020, Iss. 95, pp. 33-52 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturII202095.33-52
After the death of Emperor Alexander III in October 1894, various rumours began to circulate in the public communication of Russia and, above all, in the both capitals as to what political course the young Emperor Nicholas II would adhere to, i.e. whether he would continue his father’s line or his grandfather’s reforms. In addition to rumours, the opposite opinions of the past reign were actively voiced in the press. Such assessments, formally referring to the past, were in fact aimed to infl uence the shaping by Nicholas II of the government course. The initiatives of the end of 1894 — beginning of 1895 to support the literary circles should also be considered in this perspective. The idea of the liberal orientation of the monarch and his possible steps in this direction were more widely disseminated. The adherents to this point of view seemed to deliberately shape the information environment to establish the ideological agenda for Nicholas II and to impede his departure in the opposite direction. For a long time, the new tsar gave no defi nite answer as to what direction he would follow. The suspense lasted almost three months, and only on 17 January 1895, the Emperor clearly outlined his political priorities in the famous speech in the Winter Palace. Its sharpness can seem inadequate to the content of the addresses of Zemstvo about which he was speaking. However, it is explained by the fact that Nicholas II reacted to veiled constitutionalist ideas imbedded in the addresses and to the entire campaign to shape his liberal image in the public opinion that unfolded immediately after the death of Alexander III.
Emperor Alexander III, Emperor Nicholas II, Lev Aleksandrovich Tikhomirov, Fedor Izmailovich Rodichev, Petr Berngardovich Struve, Vasiliy Alekseevich Maklakov, Zemstvo, rumours
  1. Andreev D. (2011) “Imperator Nikolai II v pervye mesiatsy tsarstvovaniia: vneshnie vliianiya i samostoiatel’nye resheniia” [Emperor Nicholas II during the fi rst months of his reign: external influences and independent decisions]. Rossiiskaia istoriia, 4, p. 114–125 (in Russian).
  2. Andreev D. (2011) “Kak mechtaniia iz ‘bezumnykh’ stali ‘bessmyslennymi’: k istorii rechi imperatora Nikolaia II 17 ianvaria 1895 goda” [How “absurd” reveries became “meaningless”: on Emperor Nicholas’s II appeal on 17 January, 1895]. Vestnik Volgogradskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriia 4: Istoriia. Regionovedenie. Mezhdunarodnye otnosheniia, 2 (20), p. 36–44 (in Russian).
  3. Krizis samoderzhaviia v Rossii, 1895–1917 (1984) [Crisis of tsar’s power in Russia, 1894–1917]. Leningrad (in Russian).
  4. Makushin A., Tribunskii P. (2001) Pavel Nikolaevich Miliukov: trudy i dni (1859–1904) [Pavel Nikolaevich Milyukov: works and days (1859–1904)]. Ryazan’ (in Russian).
  5. Shlemin P. (1973) “Zemsko-liberal’noe dvizhenie i adresa 1894/95 g.” [Zemstvo-related and liberal movement and addresses of 1894/95]. Vestnik Moskovskogo universiteta. Seriia IX. Istoriia, 1, pp. 60–73 (in Russian).
  6. Soloviov K. (2018) Politicheskaia sistema Rossiiskoi imperii v 1881–1905 gg.: problema zakonotvorchestva [The political system of the Russian Empire in 1881–1905: the problem of lawmaking]. Moscow (in Russian).
  7. Vlast’ i reformy. Ot samoderzhavnoi k sovetskoi Rossii (1996) [The power and reforms: from tsar’s to Soviet Russia]. St. Petersburg (in Russian).

Andreev Dmitry

Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in History;
Place of work: Lomonosov Moscow State University; 27/4 Lomonosovskiy prosp., Moscow 119192, Russian Federation;
Post: Associate Professor;
ORCID: 0000-0002-7489-6044;
Email: carpenter2005@yandex.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.

Gayda Fyodor

Ideas about the mission of “intelligentsia” in russian public thought of the second half of the 19th — early 20th centuries

Gayda Fyodor (2020) "Ideas about the mission of “intelligentsia” in russian public thought of the second half of the 19th — early 20th centuries ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia II : Istoriia. Istoriia Russkoy Pravoslavnoy Tserkvi, 2020, Iss. 95, pp. 53-69 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturII202095.53-69
The article studies the ideas about the mission of the “intelligentsia” that developed in Russian public thought in the second half of the 19th and early 20th centuries. This question has not yet been suffi ciently studied in a rich historiographic tradition devoted to the topic of the Russian intelligentsia. This topic remains largely journalistic. However, this issue turned out to be fundamentally important in the context of selfidentifi cation of the “intelligentsia” already at the end of the 19th century. The author of the article considers the formation of relevant ideas among thinkers of the conservative, liberal and socialist directions. The article concludes that discussions about the “intelligentsia” were primarily based on diff erent ideas about its attitude to the people. Both conservative “pochvenniki” (I. S. Aksakov, N. Ya. Danilevsky), and moderate liberals (A. D. Gradovsky), and socialist “narodniki” (G. I. Uspensky, N. K. Mikhailovsky) insisted on the enlightening duty of “intelligentsia”. Without this, this, the “intelligentsia” lost its meaning. Enlightenment was understood in a predominantly ideological sense. The very concept of “intelligentsia” in the discussions was revised, i.e. instead of an “educated society”, it turned into a “bearer of ideas”. Secular understanding was supplemented by religious in the early twentieth century (V. A. Ternavtsev, D. S. Merezhkovsky, Vyach. I. Ivanov, A. A. Blok, S. N. Bulgakov). In this new conception, the “intelligentsia” was to be completely transformed. Nevertheless, the transformation would preserve its leading social role for the “new intelligentsia”.
Russian intelligentsia, I. S. Aksakov, G. I. Uspensky, N. K. Mikhailovsky, V. A. Ternavtsev, D. S. Merezhkovsky, S. N. Bulgakov
  1. Arslanov R., Blokhin V. (2014) “Intelligentsiia v vozzreniiakh rossiiskikh liberalov i reformatorovdemokratov kontsa XIX — nachala XX v.” [Intelligentsia in the views of Russian liberals and democrat reformers of the late 19th and early 20th centuries]. Vestnik RUDN: Istorija Rossii, 2, p. 22‒36 (in Russian).
  2. Kolerov M. (1996) Ne mir, no mech. Russkaia religiozno-fi losofskaia pechat’ ot «Problem idealizma» do «Vekh». 1902–1909 [Not the piece, but the sword. Russian religious and philosophical press from the “Problems of idealism” to the “Milestones”. 1902‒1909]. St. Petersburg (in Russian).
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  4. Vikhavainen T. (2004) Vnutrennii vrag: bor’ba s meshhanstvom kak moral’naia missiia russkoi intelligentsii [Internal enemy: the fi ght against philistinism as a moral mission of the Russian intelligentsia]. St Petersburg (in Russian).

Gayda Fyodor

Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in History;
Academic Rank: Associate Professor;
Place of work: St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University for Humanities; 6/1 Likhov per., Moscow, Russian Federation;
Post: Leading Researcher;
ORCID: 0000-0001-9586-8010;
Email: fyodorgayda@gmail.com.

*According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.

Bodnarchuk Dmitrii

Historians of St. Petersburg theological academy (1869–1917): an attempt of a collective portrait

Bodnarchuk Dmitrii (2020) "Historians of St. Petersburg theological academy (1869–1917): an attempt of a collective portrait ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia II : Istoriia. Istoriia Russkoy Pravoslavnoy Tserkvi, 2020, Iss. 95, pp. 70-93 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturII202095.70-93
The purpose of this article is to create a collective portrait of historians who worked at St. Petersburg Theological Academy between 1869 and 1917 and to compare it with data on historians who worked in secular educational and scientifi c institutions of St. Petersburg, with St. Petersburg University as a whole, with its Faculty of History and Philology, and with the Department of Russian History of the Faculty of History and Philology. The authors of the article analysed data on historians of St. Petersburg Theological Academy during the relevant period using a number of parameters, such as class origin, percentage of master dissertations and doctoral theses, the time between graduation and defending a dissertation, their publication activity, and time taken to obtain professorship, as well as some other parameters. The data was obtained from analysis of an array of sources (the portal Биографика СПбГУ, address-calendars of the Russian Empire for 1869‒1917m electronic catalogues of the Russian National Library in St. Petersburg, State Russian Library in Moscow, State Public Historical Library in Moscow, etc.). The article shows a continuity of the academic school of St. Petersburg Theological Academy, a high degree of corporate closedness that distinguished the school of church history of St. Petersburg. Although the “church-historical science” was seen by the historians of St. Petersburg Theological Academy as a special branch of historical knowledge, and they themselves were looked at by contemporaries as “belonging to a special church world” , diff erent from the “secular” world, the resulting collective portrait of historians of St. Petersburg Theological Academy provides all evidence to state that in a professional sense, in building their career and pursuing their scientific concerns, they were very close to historians who worked in secular educational and scientific institutions. It should be noted that a signifi cant part of scholars of St. Petersburg Theological Academy published articles in secular scientifi c periodicals and provided advisory services to government bodies. In other words, as shown in the article, the corporation of church historians was quite integrated both in the scientific life of the professional historical community of the second half of the 19th and early 20th centuries, and in the state milieu of the Empire.
Higher Theological School, St. Petersburg Theological Academy, prosopography, church history, church historians, theological education, collective portrait of historians, St. Petersburg School of History
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Bodnarchuk Dmitrii

Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in History;
Place of work: St. Petersburg State University; 7‒9 Universitetskaya nab., St. Petersburg 199034, Russian Federation;
Post: Researcher;
ORCID: 0000-0002-5310-9283;
Email: funsie@mail.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.

Shumylo Sergey

Unknown letter of hieroschemamonk Antoniy (Bulatovich) to Emperor Nicholas II as a source for the history of the skete “Black Whirlpool” and the history of “disputes of name-glorifiers” in Athos

Shumylo Sergey (2020) "Unknown letter of hieroschemamonk Antoniy (Bulatovich) to Emperor Nicholas II as a source for the history of the skete “Black Whirlpool” and the history of “disputes of name-glorifiers” in Athos ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia II : Istoriia. Istoriia Russkoy Pravoslavnoy Tserkvi, 2020, Iss. 95, pp. 94-117 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturII202095.94-117
This article studies for the fi rst time and makes public the letter of hieromonk Antoniy (A. K. Bulatovich, 1870‒1919, former commander of a hussar squadron) addressed to Emperor Nicholas II. The text of the letter itself, preserved in the archive of the Serbian Hilandar monastery on Mount Athos, is also published as an appendix to the article. This document is a valuable source both for the history of the Athonite “Cossack” skete “Black Whirlpool”, and on the history of the “disputes of Name- Glorifiers” in Mount Athos, as well as for the biography of hieromonk Antoniy (Bulatovich). It fi lls a number of gaps in Bulatovich’s biography in 1912, particularly regarding his attempts after returning from Ethiopia to acquire the abandoned former “Cossack” skete “Black Whirlpool” to resettle his like-minded monks, former “retired military men” and “Name-Glorifi ers”. The article discusses information and legends about the bank deposit and subsidies given by Empress Elizaveta Petrovna in the 1740s to bank accounts of the “Black Whirlpool” skete; Antoniy (Bulatovich) was hoping to get hold of the considerable interest amassed on this account. Besides, the article discusses attempts by Bulatovich to create his own monastery in Ethiopia and reasons for the confl ict with the abbot of St. Andrew’s Skete, after which he became leader of a radical opposition party of “Name-Glorifi ers” on Mount Athos. Despite the fact that a rather great deal has been written about Antoniy Bulatovich, some aspects of his biography still remain insuffi ciently studied. A search and study of archival documents would help to reveal many unknown or embellished facts of both the biography of this person and the history of “Athos tumult” of the early 20th century.
Antoniy Bulatovich, Nicholas II, Athos, Holy Mountain, Ethiopia, St. Andrew’s Skete, Black Whirlpool, Mavroviros, Name-Glorifi ers, Name of God, Athos tumult
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  25. Shumilo S. (2016) “Afonskii skit «Chernyi Vyr» i popytki vossozdaniia novogo Rusika v XVIII v. na Sviatoi Gore” [Athonite skete “Chernyi Vyr” and attempts to recreate new Rusik in the 18th century in the Holy Mountain], in Afon i slavianskii mir. Sbornik 3: Materialy mezhdunarodnoi nauchnoi konferentsii, posviashchennoi 1000-letiiu prisutstviia russkikh monakhov na Sviatoi Gore (Kiev, 21–23 maia 2015 g.) [Athos and the Slavonic world. Collection 3: Materials of the conference commemorating the 1000th anniversary of the presence of Russian monks in the Holy Mountain (Kiev, 21‒23 May, 2015)]. St. Panteleimon Monastery, Athos. 2016. S. 214–246 (in Russian).
  26. Shumilo S. (2017) “Kozats’kii skit «Chornii Vir» na Afonі u XVIII st. za malovіdomimi arkhіvnimi dzherelami” [Cossacks’ skete “Chornii Vir” in Athos in the 18th century in the light of littleknown archival sources], in Tserkva — Nauka — Suspіl’stvo: pitannia vzaemodії. Materіali 15-ї mіzhnarodnoї naukovoї konferentsії (29 travnia — 3 chervnia 2017 r.). Kiev. P. 69–77 (in Ukrainian).
  27. Shumilo S., Alf’orov O. (2020) “Pechatka «kozats’kogo» skitu «Chornii Vir» na Afonі (seredina XVIII — pochatok XIX st.)” [Stamp of the “cossacks’” skete “Chornii Vir” in Athos (mid-18th — early 19th centuries]. Kiїvs’kі іstorichnі studії (Kyiv Historical Studies). Naukovii zhurnal Kiїvs’kogo unіversitetu іmenі Borisa Grіnchenka, 1 (10), pp. 6–10 (in Ukrainian).
  28. Shumilo S. (2020) “Bunchukovii tovarish Nіzhins’kogo polku Grigorіi Golub ta zasnuvannia nim skitu «Chornii Vir» na Afonі”. Siverians’kii litopis: Vseukraїns’kii naukovii zhurnal, 2 (152), p. 60–80 (in Ukrainian).

Shumylo Sergey

Place of work: The International Institute of the Athonite Legacy; 126 Velyka Vasylkivska ul., offi ce 1, 03150 Kyiv, Ukraine;
Post: Director;
ORCID: 0000-0001-7041-7766;
Email: athosgreec@gmail.com.
Chibisova Anastasiya

Patriarch Tikhon and autocephaly of the Polish Orthodox Church of 1924

Chibisova Anastasiya (2020) "Patriarch Tikhon and autocephaly of the Polish Orthodox Church of 1924 ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia II : Istoriia. Istoriia Russkoy Pravoslavnoy Tserkvi, 2020, Iss. 95, pp. 118-141 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturII202095.118-141
In the early 1920s, the Polish government conducted active negotiations in Moscow with Patriarch Tikhon (Bellavin) on the issue of his blessing the autocephaly of the Polish Orthodox Church. Up to now, in Russian historiography has been only one document that reveals the attitude of Patriarch Tikhon to the idea of the independent existence of the Polish Church. It is a text of a resolution made by the Patriarch at the request of the Polish bishops to grant independence to the Polish Church. It was published in a collection of documents from M. E. Gubonin’s archive. This article is intended to expand our knowledge of Patriarch Tikhon’s position taken during negotiations with Polish diplomats in the fi rst half of the 1920s, as well as to introduce new documents related to the topic. The article describes in detail the course of negotiations and their outcome. Special attention is paid to the moderateness of the position of the Patriarch as to the Polish question and to the fact that he consistently off ered broad autonomy to the Polish Church. Another conclusion is that Patriarch Tikhon’s position facilitated the negotiations of the Polish government about the autocephaly with Constantinople Patriarchate. These negotiations resulted in its acknowledgement of independence of the Polish Church in 1924. The article is accompanied by an appendix.
Patriarch Tikhon, autocephaly, Moscow Patriarchate, Patriarchate of Constantinople, Polish Church, Metropolitan George (Yaroshevsky), Metropolitan Dionysius (Waledinsky)
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  2. Gromadskii Aleksii, archb. (1937) Iz istorii Pravoslavnoi tserkvi v Pol’she za desiatiletie prebyvaniia vo glave ee Blazhenneishego mitropolita Dionisiia [From the history of the Orthodox Church in Poland over the ten years of its presidency, His Beatitude Metropolitan Dionysius] (1923– 1933). Warsaw. (Ιn Russian).
  3. Maksimenko Vitalij , arhim. (1923) Kak byla vvedena avtokefalij a v Pol’she (Istoricheskaja zapiska) [How autocephaly was introduced in Poland (Historical note)]. Novyj Sad (in Russian).
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  6. Starodub A. (2013) ''Peregovori mіzh pol’s’kim diplomatichnim predstavnictvom u Moskvі ta patrіarhom Tihonom (Bєllavіnim) u spravі statusu ta jurisdikcії Pravoslavnoї cerkvi v Pol’shhі (veresen’ 1921 – kvіten’ 1922 rokіv)'' in Ukraїns’kij arheografіchnij shhorіchnik [Ukrainian Archaeographic Yearbook]. Kiev. Vip. 18. (In Ukrainian).
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Chibisova Anastasiya

Student status: Graduate student;
Place of study: Lomonosov Moscow State University; 27/4 Lomonosovskii Prospect, Moscow 119192, Russian Federation;
ORCID: 0000-0003-3698-5836;
Email: aachibisova@mail.ru.
Vedeneev Dmytro

Expansion of the Roman Catholic Church in Ukraine and counteraction of the soviet special services (1920s — 1940s)

Vedeneev Dmytro (2020) "Expansion of the Roman Catholic Church in Ukraine and counteraction of the soviet special services (1920s — 1940s) ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia II : Istoriia. Istoriia Russkoy Pravoslavnoy Tserkvi, 2020, Iss. 95, pp. 142-162 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturII202095.142-162
Using little-known documents of Soviet special services, the article studies the mechanism and process of proselytism, political and information-related expansion of the Roman Catholic Church onto the non-canonic for the Vatican regions of Central and Eastern Ukraine from the 1920s to 1945. Using the information and analytics of Soviet special services of state security, the article describes structures and educational institutions of the Vatican that promoted the Papal infl uence on the East, collected spy information, turned people into Catholicism and created corresponfi ng atmosphere in society. Particular attention is paid to the activity of the Roman Catholic Church in the Ukraine during World War II, when the Vatican, in fact, took a position of friendly neutrality to Hitler and attempted to use the occupation of the Ukraine for creating long-term positions there. Using the documents of the People’s Commissariat for Internal Aff airs and People’s Commissariat for State Security of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic and of the USSR, the article studies the activity of state security organs against the Vatican in the Ukraine, including the struggle against the Polish nationalist underground (operation “Sejm”). The article also describes the position of the Kremlin as to the Greek Catholics in the USSR and Greek Catholics of the Ukraine. The conclusion of the article is that the attempts of Rome to intervene in the process of post-war regulations from pro-German positions, the external political ambitions and aggressive Papal policy in furthering its infl uence over the non-canonic territory in the East, serious involvement of the clergy of the Roman Catholic Church and anti-Soviet military underground rebel movement resulted in a direct opposition between the Soviet state security organs and Catholicism in the Ukraine.
Roman Catholic Church, Vatican, religious expansion, Ukraine, intelligence service, counterintelligence service, Second World War
  1. Antonov V. (2015) “V gody voennogo likholet’ia. Deiatel’nost’ sovetskoi vneshnei razvedki v period Velikoi Otechestvennoi voiny” [In the years of tumulult of war. Soviet foreign intelligence during World War II]. Nezavisimoe voennoe obozrenie. 31.06.2015 (in Russian).
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Vedeneev Dmytro

Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in History;
Academic Rank: Professor;
Place of work: National Academy of Culture and Arts Management; 9 Lavrska Str., Kyiv, 01015, Ukraine;
Post: Professor of the humanitarian sciences chair;
ORCID: 0000 0002 8929 9875;
Email: zastava67@i.ua.

*According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.


Bureha Volodymyr

Bishop Gorazd (Pavlik): biography of an orthodox reformer — Rev. of Marek Pavel. Biskup Gorazd (Pavlík). Životní příběh hledání ideální církve pro 20. století. Olomouc: Univerzita Palackého v Olomouci, 2019. 698 p.

Bureha Volodymyr (2020) "Bishop Gorazd (Pavlik): biography of an orthodox reformer". Rev. of Marek Pavel. Biskup Gorazd (Pavlík). Životní příběh hledání ideální církve pro 20. století. Olomouc: Univerzita Palackého v Olomouci, 2019. 698 p., Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia II : Istoriia. Istoriia Russkoy Pravoslavnoy Tserkvi, 2020, Iss. 95, pp. 165-172 (in Russian).


Bureha Volodymyr

Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Theology;
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in History;
Academic Rank: Professor;
Place of work: Kiev Theological Academy and Seminary; 25, Lavrskaja Str., Kiev 01015, Ukraine;
Post: Vice Rector for Research in Theology;
ORCID: 0000-0001-9207-7723;
Email: VBureha@gmail.com.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.