The author examines the meaning of the Old Testament corpus contained in the Greek translation of the Septuagint in order to better understand the anthropology of the Bible on the basis of the work of classiﬁ cation done by G. Wolﬀ in his survey. The author studies the derivation of terminology and deﬁnes its original meaning. This is fundamental for the study of the way the human person was conceived on the cusp of the Old and New Testaments. The Septuagint translation may be analyzed under two aspects: etymology and interpretation. In many cases, the translation allows us to understand more clearly how the translators understood not only individual words but also whole concepts. The author understands the term biblical anthropology in the German sense as the description of the nature of the human person and his place in the world from the point of view of the Bible. The author highlights the semantics underlying the use of the term body (soma), which in itself is poorly conveyed by ancient Hebrew, but which is used in the Septuagint in a way consistent with that employed by the New Testament. The word body describes the ﬁgure of the human person with great objectivity and is itself replete with deﬁnite descriptive attributes. Also new is the understanding of the word spirit (pneuma), which, in this case, is used to describe a person. In this context, it begins to enter the anthropological lexicon and at the same time foreshadows its use in the problematic surrounding early-Christian trichotomy.
Bible, Septuagint, anthropology, human being, translation, terminology
1. Alekseev A. A. 2007 “Septuaginta i ee literaturnoe okruzhenie” (Septuagint and Its Literary Context), in Bogoslovskie trudy, vol. 41, Moscow, 2007, pp. 212—259.
2. Vajngrin Dzh. Vvedenie v tekstologiju Vethogo Zaveta (Introduction to Textial Studies of the Old Testament), Moscow, 2002.
3. Kirsberg I. V. Fenomenologija zhizni: Vethij Zavet i pervye hristiane (Life Phenomenology: Old Testament and First Christians), Moscow, 2003.
4. Nesmelov V. I. Nauka o cheloveke (Human Science), Kazan, 1906, vol. 2.
5. Lang B. (ed.) Anthropological Approaches to the Old Testament, London, 1985.
6. Barr J. The Semantics of Biblical Language, Oxford, 1961.
7. The Cambridge History of the Bible, Cambridge, 1970, vol. 1.
8. Dorival G., Harl M., Munnich O. La Bible Grecque des Septante. Du judaïsme hellénistique au christianisme ancient, Paris, 1994.
9. Barclay J. (ed.) Early Christian Thought in its Jewish Context, Cambridge, 1996.
10. Kaiser O. 2000 “Die Bedeutung der griechischen Welt für die alttestamentische Theologie“, in Nachrichten der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Göttingen. I. Philologisch-historische Klasse, 2000, vol. 7.
11. Kümmel W. G. Römer 7 und das Bild des Menschen im Neuen Testament. Zwei Studien, München, 1974.
12. Pedersen J. Israel: It’s Life and Culture, Atlanta, 1991, vol. 1.
13. Prĳs L. Jüdische Tradition in der Septuaginta, Leiden, 1948.
14. Robinson H.W. The Religious Ideas of the Old Testament, New York, 1921.
15. Rogerson J. W. Anthropology and the Old Testament, Oxford, 1978.
16. Rösel M. 2006 “Towards a “Theology of the Septuagint””, in Septuagint Research: Issues and Challenges in the Study of the Greek Jewish Scriptures, Atlanta, 2006, pp. 239—252.
17. Wolff H. W. Anthropologie des Alten Testaments, Gütersloh, 1994.