The author of the article describes the philosophical complexity and the ideological coherence of the two earliest philosophical concepts of the One belonging to early Pythagoreans and to the Eleatics, as well as the connection between the concept of the One and the ontological and epistemological dualism. The analysis of the concept of the One in the early Pythagorean school is based on the fragments of Philolaus and on the extant material concerning the science of music and geometry in this school. Part 1 considers the interrelation of two fragments by Philolaus: according to one of them, at the center of the Cosmic Space (Sphere) there is the One which is identiﬁed with ﬁre; according to the other fragment, the multitude of things were brought into being by the harmonious corresponding of the limiting and the limitless. Part 2 describes the understanding of harmony, musical consonances, tetraktys, geometrical constructions, the expressible and the inexpressible in the early Pythagorean school. Part 3 considers the concept of the Central Fire. In Part 4 the author demonstrates the connection existing between the ideas of the early Pythagorean school mentioned above and the key topoi of the philosophy of the Eleatics. The author concludes that the amalgamation of monism and ontological and epistemological dualism - one of the richest philosophical, scientiﬁ c and religious phenomena in the history of thought - has its roots in the doctrines of Pythagoreans and Eleatics.
ontology, Pre-Socratic philosophers, Pythagoreans, Eleatics, the One, (cosmic) space, nature, the limiting, the limitless, number, origin, dualism
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