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Кострюков А. А. Святитель Серафим (Соболев) и «Дело князя Лобанова-Ростовского» // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2018. Вып. 82. С. 107-134. DOI: 10.15382/sturII201882.107-134
Archbishop Seraphim Sobolev (proclaimed a saint in 2016) is known as an ascetic and defender of Orthodoxy. This publication deals with an unexplored period of life of this hierarch. During the confl ict between authorities of the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad and head of West European diocese metropolitan Eulogy (Georgievsky), the brochure “Turmoil of Carlovci” (Russ. «Карловацкая смута») was spread. Among various accusations against the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad, it contained insinuations against archbishop Seraphim. In particular, the author of the brochure accused him of an unfair excommunication of prince Lobanov-Rostovsky. Drawing on to the letters of Lobanov-Rostovsky that were found in the State Archive of the Russian Federation, the author of the publication came to a conclusion that these remarks about the holy hierarch are unfair. The struggle for infl uence over the parish of St. Nicholas in Sofi a became a cause of the confl ict. Lobanov-Rostovsky held tactless conversations as he was displeased with the fact that archbishop Seraphim became close to the family of M. Zyzykin. These conversations stained the reputation of bishop Seraphim and his younger brother hieromonk Sergius. As a result, Lobanov-Rostovsky was excommunicated until he showed repentance. Episcopal Synod of the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad discussed this confl ict in 1925. Head of the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad metropolitan Anthony (Khrapovitsky) decidedly supported archbishop Seraphim. Episcopal Synod also took the side of the bishop. They confi rmed that archbishop Seraphim’s decision was fair. The confl ict ended with the reconciliation between archbishop Seraphim and prince Lobanov-Rostovsky in the summer of 1925.
Saint Seraphim (Sobolev), metropolitan Anthony (Khrapovitsky), metropolitan Eulogy (Georgievsky), M. Zyzykin, I. Lobanov-Rostovskiy, Russian emigration in the 20th century, Russian Orthodox Church Abroad, Orthodox Church of Bulgaria, West European exarchate of parishes of Russian tradition, Russian church of St. Nicholas in Sofia
  1. Kiprian (Kern), arhim., Pravoslavnoye pastirskoe sluzhenie, St. Petersburg, 1996.
  2. Kostryukov A., Arhiepiskop Serafim (Sobolev): zhizn, sluzhenie, ideologiya, Moscow, 2011.
  3. Kostryukov A., Plamen ognenniy. Zhizn I naslediye arhiepiskopa Serafima (Soboleva), Moscow, 2015.
  4. Kostryukov A., Russkaya Zarubezhnaya Tserkov v 1939–1964 гг. Administrativnoye ustroystvo I otnosheniya s Tserkoviyu v otechestve, Moscow, 2015.
Kostryukov Andrey
Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in History;
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Theology;
Place of work: St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University for Humanities; 6/1 Likhov Pereulok, office 219, Moscow 127051, Russian Federation;
Post: Leading Research Fellow, Research Centre for Contemporary History of Russian Orthodox Church; Associate Professor, Department of General and Russian Church History and Canon Law;
ORCID: 0000-0003-4334-1035;
Email: a.kost@mail.ru. *According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.
Кострюков А. А. Наступает время творческого собирания всех живых духовных сил // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2018. Вып. 82. С. 149-152. — Rev. op.: Юго-Восточный Русский Церковный Собор 1919 года / Сб. документов под ред. Ю. А. Бирюковой. М.: Изд. Новоспасского монастыря, 2018.
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Kostryukov Andrey
Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in History;
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Theology;
Place of work: St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University for Humanities; 6/1 Likhov Pereulok, office 219, Moscow 127051, Russian Federation;
Post: Leading Research Fellow, Research Centre for Contemporary History of Russian Orthodox Church; Associate Professor, Department of General and Russian Church History and Canon Law;
ORCID: 0000-0003-4334-1035;
Email: a.kost@mail.ru. *According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.
Кострюков А. А. "Врачу, исцелися сам" (Лук. 4, 23). Профессор С. В. Троицкий против «восточного папизма» Константинополя // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2019. Вып. 87. С. 141-148. DOI: 10.15382/sturII201987.141-148
Sergei Victorovich Troitsky is a prominent theologian and canonist, doctor of theology of the University of Belgrade. Heritage of this scholar is in demand now, though many of his articles are not known to the reading public. The letter which is published here belongs to an important event in the history of the church. In 1965, patriarch Athenagoras (Spyrou) of Constantinople excluded from his jurisdiction the Exarchate of Russian Orthodox Parishes of Western Europe which was ruled by archbishop Georgy (Tarasov). In patriarch Athenagoras’ proclamation, there was advice for archbishop Georgy to go over under the authority of patriarch of Moscow Alexy I. It might have seemed that this event was an important victory of Moscow diplomacy. However, contemporaries, S. V. Troitsky among them, paid attention to the formulations of the proclamation of Constantinople Patriarchy. According to these formulations, Constantinople established its rights upon the diaspora in the whole world. Troitsky in his letter to Metropolitan Nikodim (Rotov), head of the Department for External Church Relations, makes a point that these claims of Constantinople are unfounded. Besides, he mentions the danger of the new policy of Phanar. For example, for the Orthodox it will be harder to have a dialogue with Anglicans and Old Catholics, who left Roman Church just because of its claims for global power. Now the same situation takes place in the Orthodox Church as well. Troitsky proposed to prepare a brochure with criticism against the policy of Constantinople. Such a brochure would be useful because Troitsky’s articles on this topic were scattered in various foreign journals and had been forgotten by that time. Troitsky also discusses canonic measures that should be taken against archbishop Georgy (Tarasov), who refused to affi liate with the Moscow Patriarchate.
patriarch Alexy I of Moscow, patriarch Athenagoras of Constantinople, metropolitan Nikodim (Rotov), archbishop Georgy (Tarasov), archimandrite Siluan (Strizhkov), Sergei Troitsky, Church of Constantinople, Patriarchate of Moscow, Exarchate of Parishes of Russian Tradition in Western Europe, diaspora, Russian emigration
  1. Troitskii S. (1923) “Iurisdiktsiia Tsarigradskogo Patriarkha v oblasti diaspory” [Jurisdiction of Patriarch of Constantinople in the Field of Diaspora]. Tserkovnye vedomosti, 1923, vol. 11–12, p. 7; vol. 17–18, pp. 8–12 (in Russian).
  2. Troitskii S. (1924) “«Dymnoe nadmenie mira» i Tserkov’” [“«Fumous Pride of the World» and the Church”]. Tserkovnye vedomosti, 1924, vol. 15–16, pp. 16–17; vol. 17–18, pp. 8–9; vol. 21–22, pp. 6–9; vol. 23–24, pp. 8–10 (in Russian).
  3. Troitskii S. (1932) Razmezhevanie ili raskol [Faction or Schism]. Paris (in Russian).
  4. Troitskii S. (1933) Khristianskaia fi losofi ia braka [Christian Philosophy of Marriage]. Paris (in Russian).
  5. Troitskii S. (1937) Mitropolit Sergii i primirenie russkoi diaspory [Metropolitan Sergy and Reconciliation in Russian Diaspora]. Sremski Karlovci (in Russian).
  6. Troitskii S. (1947) “O granitsakh rasprostraneniia prava vlasti Konstantinopol’skoi Patriarkhii na «Diasporu»” [On the Limits of Extending Constantinople’s Right to Power over “Diaspora”]. Zhurnal Moskovskoi Patriarkhii. Vol. 11, pp. 34–45 (in Russian).
  7. Troitskii S. (1949) “Po povodu neudachnoi zashchity lozhnoi teorii” [On a Failed Attempt to Defend a False Theory]. Zhurnal Moskovskoi Patriarkhii, 1949, vol. 12, pp. 29–54 (in Russian).
Kostryukov Andrey
Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in History;
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Theology;
Place of work: St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University for Humanities; 6/1 Likhov Pereulok, office 219, Moscow 127051, Russian Federation;
Post: Leading Research Fellow, Research Centre for Contemporary History of Russian Orthodox Church; Associate Professor, Department of General and Russian Church History and Canon Law;
ORCID: 0000-0003-4334-1035;
Email: a.kost@mail.ru. *According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.
Кострюков А. А. Православная Сибирь в преддверии «Хамодержавия» // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2019. Вып. 90. С. 151-154. — Rev. op.: Белоус П. В. Тобольская епархия в годы Первой мировой войны (1914 – 1918). Тюмень: Издательство Тюменского государственного университета. 2018. – 288 с.
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Kostryukov Andrey
Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in History;
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Theology;
Place of work: St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University for Humanities; 6/1 Likhov Pereulok, office 219, Moscow 127051, Russian Federation;
Post: Leading Research Fellow, Research Centre for Contemporary History of Russian Orthodox Church; Associate Professor, Department of General and Russian Church History and Canon Law;
ORCID: 0000-0003-4334-1035;
Email: a.kost@mail.ru. *According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.
Кострюков А. А. К вопросу о взаимоотношениях Сербской и Русской Зарубежной Церквей в 1960 – 1980-е гг. // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2020. Вып. 92. С. 144-157. DOI: 10.15382/sturII202092.144-157
This article studies the problems in relations between the Serbian Church and the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad. In the 1920s and 1930s, Russian refugees were supported by the Serbian Church, and the Russian Church Abroad was granted canonical status. Good relations between the churches continued afterwards as well. However, in the 1960s and 1980s, the party of “zealots” (Russ. ревнители) gained considerable influence in the Russian Church Abroad, accusing the Orthodox world of apostasy and advocating a resolute severance with the local churches, including the Serbian Church. At the same time, many priests valued their relations with world Orthodoxy. The opposition of the two parties is linked to the attitude of the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad towards bishop Dionysius (Milivojevich), who separated from the Serbian Church in 1963 and established the so-called “Free Serbian Orthodox Church”. At fi rst, the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad was ready to fully support the new split, but in 1967 it condemned the new discord. Nevertheless, later representatives of the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad, including metropolitan Filaret (Voznesensky) made harsh statements against the legitimate Serbian Church. For its part, the Serbian Church avoided conflict with the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad and continued to protect it. In the early 1970s, Moscow Patriarchate was preparing to condemn the Russian Church Abroad. The issue was discussed at the Local Council in 1971, and it was decided to abandon it. A representative of the Serbian Church, who was present at the Council, also opposed the condemnation of the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad. This attitude on the part of the Serbian Church was also observed later, in the 1990s too, when relations between Moscow Patriarchate and the Russian Church Abroad were particularly difficult.
Russian Orthodox Church Abroad, Moscow Patriarchate, Serbian Orthodox Church, Local Council of 1971, “Serbian Free Orthodox Church”, metropolitan Filaret (Voznesensky), metropolitan Nikodim (Rotov), bishop Dionysius (Milivojevich)
  1. Kassia, nun (T. Senina) (ed.) (2007) Stolp ognennyi. Mitropolit N’iu-Iorkskii i Vostochno- Amerikanskii Filaret (Voznesenskii) i Russkaia Zarubezhnaia Tserkov’ (1964–1985) [The Pillar of Fire. Metropolitan of New York and West America Filaret and Russian Church Abroad (1964‒1985]. St Petersburg (in Russian).
  2. Kosik V. (2000) Russkaia Tserkov’ v Yugoslavii (20–40-e gg. XX veka) [Russian Church in Yugoslavia (1920s — 1940s). Moscow (in Russian).
  3. Kosik V. (2012) Khorvatskaia Pravoslavnaia Tserkov’ (ot organizatsii do likvidatsii) (1942– 1945). Vzgliad iz ХХI veka [Croatian Orthodox Church (from establishment to dissolution) (1942‒1945)]. Moscow (in Russian).
  4. Kostryukov A. (2007) Russkaia Zarubezhnaia Tserkov’ v pervoi polovine 1920kh godov. Organizatsiia tserkovnogo upravleniia v emigratsii i ego otnosheniia s Moskovskoi Patriarkhiei pri zhizni Patriarkha Tikhona [Russian Orthodox Church in the First Half of the 1920s. Organisation of Church Administration in Emigration and its Relations with Moscow Patriarchate during Time of Patriarch Tikhon]. Moscow (in Russian).
  5. Kostryukov A. (2011) Russkaia Zarubezhnaia Tserkov’ v 1925–1938 gg. Iurisdiktsionnye konfl ikty i otnosheniia s moskovskoi tserkovnoi vlast’iu [Russian Church Abroad in 1925‒1938. Jurisdiction Conflicts and Relations with Moscow Church Authorities]. Moscow (in Russian).
  6. Kostryukov A. (2018) Russkaia Zarubezhnaia Tserkov’ v 1939–1964 gg. Administrativnoe ustroistvo i otnosheniya s Tserkov’iu v Otechestve [Russian Church Abroad in 1939‒1964. Administrative Structure and Relations with the Church in the Homeland]. Moscow (in Russian).
  7. Psarev A. (2012) Razvitie mirovozzreniia Russkoi Zarubezhnoi Tserkvi v otnoshenii Pomestnykh Tserkvei i inoslaviia [Development of Worldview of Russian Church Abroad as to Local Churches and Heterodoxy], in Deyaniia IV Vsezarubezhnogo Sobora Russkoi Pravoslavnoi Tserkvi Zagranitsei [Acts of the 4th General Council of Russian Orthodox CHurch Abroad]. Moscow, pp. 180–205 (in Russian).
  8. Shkarovskii M. (2009) Istoriia russkoi tserkovnoi emigratsii [History of Russian Church Emigration]. St Petersburg (in Russian).
  9. Shkarovskii M. (2019) Pravoslavnye Tserkvi Iugo-Vostochnoi Evropy mezhdu dvumia mirovymi voinami [Orthodox Churches of South-Eastern Europe between Two Waorld Wars]. Moscow (in Russian).
Kostryukov Andrey
Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in History;
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Theology;
Place of work: St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University for Humanities; 6/1 Likhov Pereulok, office 219, Moscow 127051, Russian Federation;
Post: Leading Research Fellow, Research Centre for Contemporary History of Russian Orthodox Church; Associate Professor, Department of General and Russian Church History and Canon Law;
ORCID: 0000-0003-4334-1035;
Email: a.kost@mail.ru. *According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.
Кострюков А. А. Как не потеряться в «джунглях зилотства»? // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2020. Вып. 94. С. 173-176. — Rev. op.: Бочков П., свящ. Обзор неканонических православных юрисдикций ХХ–ХХI вв. СПб: Свое издательство. 2018. Т. 1–4. Изд. 2-е, испр. и доп.
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Kostryukov Andrey
Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in History;
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Theology;
Place of work: St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University for Humanities; 6/1 Likhov Pereulok, office 219, Moscow 127051, Russian Federation;
Post: Leading Research Fellow, Research Centre for Contemporary History of Russian Orthodox Church; Associate Professor, Department of General and Russian Church History and Canon Law;
ORCID: 0000-0003-4334-1035;
Email: a.kost@mail.ru. *According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.
Кострюков А. А. Позиция Русской Зарубежной Церкви по вопросу о благодатности Московской Патриархии при митрополите Филарете (Вознесенском) // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2021. Вып. 98. С. 130-142. DOI: 10.15382/sturII202198.130-142
This article is devoted to the attitude of the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia to Moscow Patriarchate during the period Metropolitan Philaret (Voznesensky). During his years as head of the Russian Church Abroad, criticism of the actions of Moscow Patriarchate intensifi ed. The reason for criticism was the Patriarchate’s support for the Communist state, as well as its participation in the ecumenical movement. Metropolitan Filaret, who initially expressed his opinion with restraint, gradually changed his rhetoric. Partly, the Metropolitan’s sharpness was due to the infl uence of radicals, i.e. Protopresbyter George (Grabbe) (later Bishop Gregory) and Archimandrite Panteleimon (Metropoulos). The Councils and the Synod of Bishops of the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia also made harsh statements. In particular, it was said that Moscow Patriarchate cannot be considered the successor of His Holiness Patriarch Tikhon, and its orders are illegal. Attempts were made to declare Moscow Patriarchate unholy (Rus. безблагодатный, lit. ‘with no divine grace’). This opinion was expressed by the First Hierarch of the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad, Metropolitan Filaret (Voznesensky), as well as by the secretary of the Synod of Bishops, Protopresbyter George Grabbe. They believed that the holiness (Rus. благодать) of the cleric of Moscow Patriarchate can only be obtained at the moment of joining the Russian Church Outside Russia. Despite this opinion, the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia did not offi cially declare Moscow Patriarchate unholy. A large part of the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia spoke of Moscow Patriarchate with respect and were ready for dialogue.
Moscow Patriarchate, Russian Orthodox Church Abroad, Third All-Russian Council, holiness, sacraments, Metropolitan Filaret (Voznesensky), Archbishop Averky (Taushev), Archbishop Anthony (Bartoshevich), Protopresbyter George Grabbe, Archimandrite Panteleimon (Metropoulos), A. I. Solzhenitsyn
  1. Anashkin D. (2017) “K voprosu ob osobennostiakh bogosluzhebnoi zhizni Russkoi Zarubezhnoi Tserkvi v 1946–2000 gg.” [Characteristic features of liturgical life of the Russian Church Abroad in 1946–2000]. ХХVII Ezhegodnaia bogoslovskaia konferentsiia PSTGU, p. 164–172. Moscow (in Russian).
  2. Artemov N. (2008) “Sobesedovaniia predstavitelei klira dvukh germanskikh eparkhii (MP i RPTsZ) 1993–1997 gg. kak nachalo vosstanovleniia edinstva Russkoi Tserkvi” [Colloquys of representatives of the clergy of two German dioceses (Moscow Patriarchate and Russian Orthodox Church Abroad) in 1993‒1997 as the beginning of the restoration of the unity of the Russian Church]. XVIII Ezhegodnaia bogoslovskaia konferentsiia PSTGU, vol. 1, p. 302–324 (in Russian).
  3. Borisov A. (1994) Pobelevshie nivy. Razmyshleniia o Russkoi Pravoslavnoi Tserkvi [Whitened fields. Refl ections on the Russian Orthodox Church]. Moscow (in Russian).
  4. Bochkov P. (2018) Obzor nekanonicheskikh pravoslavnykh iurisdiktsii ХХ–ХХI vv. [Review of non-canonical Orthodox jurisdictions of the 20th — 21st centuries]. St Petersburg (in Russian).
  5. Kornilov A. (2008) Monakh ot Optiny do Platiny. Zhizn’ episkopa Seattliiskogo Nektariia (Kontsevicha) [Monk from Optina to Platinum. The life of Seattle Bishop Nektarios (Kontsevich)]. Nizhnii Novgorod (in Russian).
  6. Makovetskii A. (2009) “Belaia Tserkov’”: Vdali ot ateisticheskogo terrora [White Church: far from atheistic terror]. St Petersburg (in Russian).
  7. Popov A. (2005) Rossiiskoe pravoslavnoe zarubezh’e [The Russian Orthodox expatriate community]. Moscow (in Russian).
  8. Psarev A. (2012) “Razvitie mirovozzreniya Russkoi Zarubezhnoi Tserkvi v otnoshenii Pomestnykh Tserkvei i inoslaviia” [Development of the attitude of the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad to local churches and non-Orthodoxy]. Deianiia IV Vsezarubezhnogo Sobora Russkoi Pravoslavnoi Tserkvi Zagranitsei, p. 180–205. Moscow (in Russian).
  9. Sollogub A. (1968) Russkaia Pravoslavnaia Tserkov’ za granitsei: 1918–1968 [The Russian Orthodox Church Abroad: 1918–1968]. New York (in Russian).
  10. Slesarev A. (2009) Starostil’nyi raskol v istorii Pravoslavnoi Tserkvi (1924–2008) [Old-Calendar schism in the history of the Orthodox Church (1924‒2008)]. Moscow (in Russian)
  11. Senina T. (Kassia, nun) (2007) Stolp ognennyi. Mitropolit N’iu-Iorkskii i Vostochno-Amerikanskii Filaret (Voznesenskii) i Russkaia Zarubezhnaia Tserkov‘ (1964–1985) [Pillar of fire. Metropolitan Philaret of New-York and Eastern America (Voznesensky) and the Russian Church Abroad]. St Petersburg (in Russian).
Kostryukov Andrey
Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in History;
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Theology;
Place of work: St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University for Humanities; 6/1 Likhov Pereulok, office 219, Moscow 127051, Russian Federation;
Post: Leading Research Fellow, Research Centre for Contemporary History of Russian Orthodox Church; Associate Professor, Department of General and Russian Church History and Canon Law;
ORCID: 0000-0003-4334-1035;
Email: a.kost@mail.ru. *According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.
Кострюков А. А. Капля в океане скорби // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2021. Вып. 99. С. 165-168. — Rev. op.: Пученков А., Калиновский В. Духовный форпост России. Православное духовенство Крыма в 1914–1920 годах. СПб.: Владимир Даль, 2020.
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Kostryukov Andrey
Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in History;
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Theology;
Place of work: St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University for Humanities; 6/1 Likhov Pereulok, office 219, Moscow 127051, Russian Federation;
Post: Leading Research Fellow, Research Centre for Contemporary History of Russian Orthodox Church; Associate Professor, Department of General and Russian Church History and Canon Law;
ORCID: 0000-0003-4334-1035;
Email: a.kost@mail.ru. *According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.