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Карпов К. В., Шохин В. К. [Review] // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия I: Богословие. Философия. 2012. Вып. 6 (44). С. 129-137. — Rev. op.: Философия религии: альманах 2006–2007 / Отв. ред. В. К. Шохин. М.: Наука, 2007. 498 с. Философия религии: Альманах 2008–2009 / Отв. ред. В. К. Шохин. М.: Языки славянских культур, 2010. 528 с. Философия религии: Альманах 2010–2011 / Отв. ред
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Karpov Kirill
Shokhin Vladimir
Шохин В. К. Философская теология и основное богословие // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия I: Богословие. Философия. 2014. Вып. 1 (51). С. 57-79. DOI: 10.15382/sturI201451.57-79
Two theological disciplines are contrasted in this article: philosophical theology and fundamental theology. The former evolved in Great Britain and the United States and may be considered a type of philosophical and inter-cultural deepening of natural theology. The latter was developed principally in Western Europe and especially in German Roman Catholic schools as Fudamental-Theologie and deals mostly with theology from the standpoint of Christian apologetics. The contrast between the two types is based on the fact that each of them presents differing ways of theologia naturalis (with apology of theism at its heart), both entering the area of theologia revelata. This article is an attempt at mapping out the beginnings of an Eastern Orthodox philosophical theology as an innovative theological program. The author is therefore interested in examining exactly what constitutes such a philosophical theology and in defining the limits which Eastern Orthodox tradition necessarily places upon the evolution of such a system. He also tries to learn what past methodological discussions occurring in the environment of the Russian Orthodox theological schools can contribute to the development of such a system. The author argues that these contributions need to be confined merely to the courses offered by theological schools during the synodal period. Finally, the author wishes to define how philosophical theology and fundamental theology can relate to each other in spite of their theoretical differences. The fields of apologetics and hermeneutics would certainly profit from the development of the school of philosophical theology but exactly in what way remains a question for further research.
Theology, Rational Theology, Revealed Theology, Natural Theology, Philosophical Theology, Fundamental Theology, Methodology, Apologetics, Hermeneutics, Argumentatio

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28. Smirnov S. Istorija Moskovskoj duhovnoj akademii do ee preobrazovanija (1814–1870) (History of Moscow Theological Academy before Its Foundation (1814–1870)), Moscow, 1879.
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30. Hlebnikov G. V. Filosofskaja teologija antichnosti: analiticheskij obzor (Philosophical Theology of the Ancient World: Analysis), Moscow, 2005.
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32. Shohin V. K. Vvedenie v filosofiju religii (Introduction into Philosophy of Religion), Moscow, 2010.
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Шохин В. К. Новационна ли «кульпабилизация»? // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия I: Богословие. Философия. 2014. Вып. 3 (53). С. 167-169.
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Шохин В. К. Об архетипах, фундаментализме, теодицее, религиозном сознании и классиках марксизма: комментарии к реплике К. М. Антонова // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия I: Богословие. Философия. 2014. Вып. 4 (54). С. 152-157.
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Шохин В. К. Философская теология и библейская герменевтика: дискурс о постструктуралистском вызове // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия I: Богословие. Философия. 2014. Вып. 6 (56). С. 41-57. DOI: 10.15382/sturI201456.41-51
Given that philosophical theology has two basic missions, i.e. apologetic and hermeneutic, the author avows that it is because of its philosophical nature that it realizes the first task via critical analysis of not only antitheistic but also theistic propositions and the second one by exegesis of the exegesis itself. The paper deals with the exegesis of the contemporary Christian (both Roman Catholic and Orthodox) concern conditioned by the intervention into Biblical studies of a very fashionable trend, i.e. reader-response criticism whose extreme (readers are virtually regarded as the authors of the text) corresponds to Roland Barth’s postmodernist conception of the death of the author. The paper detects not only the logical self-refutation of this theory, but also its profound inconsistency. Indeed, while positioning their liberation of a text from an author as an antitheological revolution, the champions of deconstructivism don’t realize that in the historical perspective they only parody one of the very ancient and infl uential trends of theological Biblical hermeneutics, which the author of the paper designates as “Alexandrism” and whose origins he tries to discover.
philosophical theology, apologetics, hermeneutics, exegesis, Biblical studies, reader-response criticism, post-structuralism, the death of the author, Alexandrism, allegorical method

1. Bart R. Izbrannye raboty: Semiotika. Pojetika (Selected Works: Semiotics, Poetics), Moscow, 1994.
2. Brek I., prot. 2006 “Pravoslavie i Biblija segodnja” (Orthodoxy and Bible Today), in Pravoslavie i Biblija segodnja: Sb statej, Kiev, 2006. pp. 250–290.
3. Djevis S. T. 2013 “Otkrovenie i bogoduhnovennost'” (Revelation and God Inspiration), in Flint T. P., Rej M. K. (eds.) Oksfordskoe rukovodstvo po filosofskoj teologii, Moscow, 2013, pp. 66–98.
4. Karavidopulos I. Vvedenie v Novyj Zavet (Introduction to New Testament), Moscow, 2010.
5. Shohin V. K. 2014 “Filosofskaja teologija i osnovnoe bogoslovie” (Philosophical Theology and Fundamental Theology), in Vestnik PSTGU. Serija I. Bogoslovie. Filosofija, 2014, vol. 1/51, pp. 57–79.
6. Breck J. The Power of the Word in the Worshipping Church. N. Y., 1986.
7. Fiedrowicz M. Prinzipien der Schriftauslegung in der Alten Kirche, Bern; Berlin, 1998.
8. McKnight E. V. Postmodern Use of the Bible. The Emergence of Reader-Oriented Criticism, Nashville, 1988.
9. Montague G. T. Understanding the Bible. A Basic Introduction to Biblical Interpretation, Mahwah, 1997.
10. Montague G. T. 2003 “Hermeneutics, Biblical”, in New Catholic Encyclopedia, Detroit, 2003, vol. 6, pp. 791–797.
11. Tompkins J. P. (ed.) Reader-Response Criticism: From Formalism to Post-Structuralism, [Baltimore], 1980.
Шохин В. К. Теология, богословие и музееведение: рассуждение о суждениях П. Б. Михайлова // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия I: Богословие. Философия. 2015. Вып. 2 (58). С. 143-155.
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Шохин В. К. Как была сделана классическая метафизика? // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия I: Богословие. Философия. 2015. Вып. 5 (61). С. 41-58. DOI: 10.15382/sturI201561.41-58
It is true that the Western metaphysics could be described as a continual tradition, which up to these days has been working on the issues and challenges coming from the Academy and Liceum, but its history has also undergone the shifts of paradigms linked with changes in its self-consciousness. The article deals with the passage from the traditional metaphysics, which covered two millenniums, to the classical stage dating from the early Modernity to the early Enlightenment wherein not the most notorious “great philosophers” but the scarcely known German “school philosophers” of the latest sixteenth — earliest seventeenth centuries played key roles. The research is concluded by reflections on the significance of the classical metaphysics for the later periods of the Continental philosophy and on the relevance of Clemens Timpler’s and Jacob Lorhard’s postulate that not so much the real as the intelligible should be the subject matter of metaphysics for contemporary theology.
metaphysics, the first philosophy, ontology, cosmology, psychology, theology, the real, the intelligible, Aristotelianism, “school philosophy”

1. Kruglov A. N. 2013 “I. N. Tetens i ego sochinenie «O vseobshhej spekuljativnoj filosofii»” (I. N. Tetens and His Work “About General Speculative Philosophy”), in Tetens I. N. O vseobshhej spekuljativnoj filosofii, Moscow, 2013.
2. Cuares F. 1987 “Predislovie k knige «Metafizicheskie rassuzhdenija» i 1-j razdel pervogo rassuzhdenija «O prirode pervoj filosofii, metafizike»” (Introduction to Book “Metaphysical Considerations” and First Part of First Consideration “About Nature of First Philosophy, Metaphysics”), in Istoriko-filosofskij ezhegodnik, Moscow, 1987, pp. 218–241.
3. Shohin V. K. Agatologija: sovremennost' i klassika (Agathology: Modernity and Classics), Moscow, 2014.
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6. Kobusch T. 1980 “Metaphysik III: Antike bis Hochmittelalter“, in Gründer K. (ed.) Historisches Wörterbuch der Philosophie, Basel; Stuttgart, 1980, vol. 5, pp. 1196–1217.
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8. Lorhard J. Diagraph of Metaphysic or Ontology, in www.illc.uva.nl/Research/ Publications/Reports/X-2008 04.text.pdf/ (Date: 22.07.2015)
9. Øhrstrøm P., Schärfe H., Uckelman S.L. 2008 “Jacob Lorhard’s Ontology: a 17th Century Hypertext on the Reality and Temporality of the World of Intelligibles”, in Ecklund P., Haemmerle O. (eds.) Conceptual Structures: Knowledge, Visualization and Reasoning, Berlin, 2008, pp. 74–87.
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Шохин В. К. [Review] // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия I: Богословие. Философия. 2015. Вып. 6 (62). С. 127-134. — Rev. op.: Plantinga A. Knowledge and Christian Belief. Eerdmans, 2015
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Шохин В. К. [Review] // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия I: Богословие. Философия. 2016. Вып. 2 (64). С. 133-142. — Rev. op.: Сhristian Philosophy of Religion: Essays in Honor of Stephen Davis / C. P. Ruloff , ed. University of Notre Dame Press, 2014
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Шохин В. К. В чем все-таки новизна "нового атеизма"? // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия I: Богословие. Философия. 2016. Вып. 3 (65). С. 149-157.
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Shokhin Vladimir
Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in Philosophy;
Academic Rank: Professor;
Place of work: Institute of Philosophy of the Russian Academy of Sciences; St. Tikhon Orthodox University;
Email: vladshokhin@yandex.ru. *According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.
Шохин В. К. Проблема зла: теодицея и апология // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия I: Богословие. Философия. 2016. Вып. 5 (67). С. 47-58. DOI: 10.15382/sturI201667.47-58
The paper departs from differing of two modalities of the attitude of the theistic reason to the problem of evil, i.e. building of universally valid explanatonary models (theodicy) and apologies in the particular contexts (defense). The first one contradicts to the foundations of theistic world-view inasmuch as the biblical texts persuade one that causes of evil are particular and not universal and are far sometimes to be in the scope of a finite reason. In addition, logical problems with mutual correlation of the main theodicies are demonstrated. The modality of defense seems much more epistemically justified and actual, but here by no means all persuasive resources of controversy are used. The author suggests his own answers to some atheistic challenges, in the fi rst place unmasking double standards in the corresponding argumentation unavoidable for any wishful thinking and contraposes to the idea of multitude of gratuitous evils that of infinite profusion of undeserved boons.
evil, boons, sufferings, freewill, metaphysics, theodicy, defense, argumentation, wishful thinking, gratitude.

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Shokhin Vladimir
Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in Philosophy;
Place of work: Professor;
Email: email: vladshokhin@yandex.ru. *According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.
Работа выполнена при финансовой поддержке РГНФ, грант No 15-03-00211 «Метафизи- ка в интеркультурном пространстве: история и современность»
Шохин В. К. Cтоит ли философии религии быть чем угодно? // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия I: Богословие. Философия. 2017. Вып. 70. С. 146-157. — Rev. op.: Философия религии: учебник для академического бакалавриата / М. М. Шахнович, ред. Юрайт, 2016
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Shokhin Vladimir
Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in Philosophy;
Place of work: Professor;
Email: email: vladshokhin@yandex.ru. *According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.
Шохин В. К. Обоснования существования Бога: новый опыт классификационного анализа // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия I: Богословие. Философия. 2017. Вып. 73. С. 13-29. DOI: 10.15382/sturI201773.13-29
This article gives a critical analysis of old-established stereotypes about substantiations of the existence of God. The attention is focused on their identifi cation as “proofs” and, in more detail, on their formal division into the a priori and a posteriori types and the “material” division into primary and secondary (and, correspondingly, into primary and secondary within both groups as well). The article suggests their defi nition as dialectical abductive conclusions (from the better explanation) and proposes the division into the arguments from the common sense, from metaphysical principles and from “spiritual recognition”. The article also demonstrates that most actual and persuasive substantiations are located in the fi rst group of arguments, which were developed and are developing in topical polemical dialogue with real-life opponents (this also enforces the position of the proponent). As for the arguments from metaphysical principles, they, not being justifi cations of the existence of God in the proper sense, disclose His attributes, having been established in the theology of the perfect Being (one may also call it Anselmian theology) that provides foundation for the entire rational theology of the classical theism that follows the substantiation of the existence of God but cannot replace these substantiations. The reason why analytical theology neglects to elaborate the substantiation of the existence of God is its present-day bias caused by the shift of focus from subjects that natural theology (theologia naturalis) had lawfully been dealing with for centuries to trespassing the territory of revelational theology (theologia revelata), which violates the boundaries of the competence of the religious mind.
analytic philosophy, philosophical theology, intercultural theology, naturala theology, abductive conclusions, dialectical controversy, illustrative arguments, metaphysical presuppositions, a priori and aposteriori, spiritual intuitions, a paradox of atheism
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Shokhin Vladimir
Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in Philosophy;
Academic Rank: Professor;
Place of work: Institute of Philosophy, Russian Academy of Sciences; Goncharnaya Str. 12/1, Moscow 109240, Russian Federation;
Post: Head of the Sector of Philosophy of Religion;
ORCID: 0000-0002-2111-8740;
Email: vladshokhin@yandex.ru. *According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.
The article is written within the framework of the project № 15-03-00211 "Metaphysics in the intercultural space" supported by RFBR Foundation
Шохин В. К. Легко ли брать крепость рациональной теологии? // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия I: Богословие. Философия. 2018. Вып. 79. С. 117-131. DOI: 10.15382/sturI201879.117-131
This paper deals with a certain new attempt to dismantle rational theology, which is in line with innumerable exercises of this kind after Heideggerean criticism of “ontotheology” with addition of “household arguments”. The author of the paper carries out a detailed analysis of this attempt from historical and logical points of view, demonstrating its weakness and outlining further topics in this fi eld of knowledge.
rational theology, revelation, analytic philosophy, postmodernism, “ontotheology”, Eastern Christianity, God
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Shokhin Vladimir
Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in Philosophy;
Academic Rank: Professor;
Place of work: Institute of Philosophy, Russian Academy of Sciences; Goncharnaya Str. 12/1, Moscow 109240, Russian Federation;
Post: Head of the Sector of Philosophy of Religion;
ORCID: 0000-0002-2111-8740;
Email: vladshokhin@yandex.ru. *According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.
Шохин В. К. Философско-теологический дискурс и определения догматов в духовно-академической школе синодального периода // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия I: Богословие. Философия. 2019. Вып. 82. С. 11-33. DOI: 10.15382/sturI201982.11-33
This article outlines the defi nitions of the dogmata in the most infl uential and mainstream tradition in Russian theology of the Synodal period, beginning from the “Dogmatic Theology” (Russ. Догматическое богословие) by archimandrite (future archbishop) Antony (Amfi teatrov) (1848) and concluding with the benchmarking article by Alexey Vvedensky “The Issue of Methodological Reform of Orthodox Dogmatics” (1904; Russ. К вопросу о методологической реформе православной догматики). The article shows that certain well-known modern handbooks in dogmatics render synodal interpretations. The article also reconstructs three aspects in understanding of the dogmata in the academic spiritual school. These are termed aletheological, institutional, and soteriological; attention is paid to discording opinions of spiritual and academic experts which manifested themselves most vividly at the end of the 19th — beginning of the 20th centuries. Besides, the “synodal defi nitions” and understandings of the dogmata come to be an object of critical analysis, particularly with regard to the lack of both historism and attention to the humanistic side of the synergetic nature of the “matter” of the dogmata on the whole.
philosophical theology, Christian dogmata, dogmatics, theological academies, Synodal period, theory of doctrinal development, Pope’s infallibility, inerrancy of Bible, caesaropapism
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Shokhin Vladimir
Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in Philosophy;
Academic Rank: Professor;
Place of work: Institute of Philosophy, Russian Academy of Sciences; Goncharnaya Str. 12/1, Moscow 109240, Russian Federation;
Post: Head of the Sector of Philosophy of Religion;
ORCID: 0000-0002-2111-8740;
Email: vladshokhin@yandex.ru. *According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.